10-4-07 - The thirteenth century and the new problem of...

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The thirteenth century and the new problem of Aristotle. o Aristotle’s philosophy of nature at Paris (Toulouse) Aristotle versus Christianity: o Transubstantiation (substance and accidents) o Eternity of the world o Miracles o “Double Truth” (Boethius of Dacia) o Averroes and the soul Thomas Aquinas: Aristotle and Christianity o Against the averroists o Reconciliation o God as unmoved mover o Philosophy and theology Condemnation of 1277 (Ockham) There is no room in Aristotelian natural philosophy for violating the natural cause of nature God can always suspend the way that things happen in the natural world but when teaching natural philosophy miracles and things of the sorts can not be discussed because you are simply talking about natural philosophy and would defeat the purpose. o So when a lecturer was teaching Aristotle it was your responsibility to give the correct understanding of what Aristotle himself was saying, and not with the corrections and interpretations that you felt were necessary. o “Double Truth” - People talked about things in terms of distinct truths that theology was correct in some sense, but was incorrect when you were talking about philosophy. Aquinas had trouble with this because once you said that theology was wrong when you were doing philosophy you were simply saying it was always wrong. Averroes had been a prolific commentator on Aristotle and his commentaries were particularly taken up and studied by the faculty of arts at Paris. Averroes
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