Chapter 6 HA - Chapter 6 : Bones I. Tissues and Organs of...

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Chapter 6 : Bones I. Tissues and Organs of the Skeletal System a. Skeletal system –bones, cartilage , and ligaments i. Cartilage the embryonic forerunner of most bones, covers, many joint surfaces in the mature skeleton ii. Tendons are structures similar to ligaments but attach muscels to bones b. Function of the skeletal system i. Support , movement protection ii. Blood formation 1. red marrow is the major producer of blood cells , and most cells of immune system 2. Electrolyte balance a. Main mineral reservoir i. Stores calcium and phosphate and releases then when needed b. Acid base balance i. Bones buffers the blood against excessive ph changes by absorbing or releasing alkaline salts such as calcium phosphate c. Detoxification i. Removes heavy metals and other foreign elements from the blood and thus reduces their toxic effects on other tissues. c. Bones and osseous Tissue i. Connective tissue in which the matrix is hardened by the deposition of calcium phosphate and other minerals 1. minerlization or calcification: Hardening process ii. only tissue that make up a bone 1. present are blood, bone marrow, cartilage, adipose tissue , nervous tissue, and fibrous connective tissue d. The shape of the bone i. Long bones 1. serve as rigid levers that are acted upon by the skeletal muscles to produce body movements a. humerus of the arm, the radius and ulna of the forearm, the metacarpals and phalanges of the hand, the femur of the thigh, the tibia and fibula of the tleg , and the metatarsals and phalanges of the feet ii. short bones 1. carpal,tarsal, limited motion and merely glide across one another , enabling the ankles and wrists to bend in multiple directions
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2. Flat bones : Enclose and protect soft organs and provide broad surfaces for muscle attachments. a. Cranial bones, the ribs, the sternum, the scapula, and the ossa coxae 3. Irregular bones a. Elaborate shapes i. Vertebrae and some skull bones 1. sphenoid and ethmoid bones e. General features of bones i. Compact bones 1. loosely organized form of osseous (spongy (cancellous) bone) 2. 3 quarters compact and 3 quarters spongy 3. long bone a. diaphysis : the shaft i. medulary: largely of a cylinder of compact bone enclosing 1. bone marrow occupies here , and the spaces amid the spongy bone of the epiphysis 2. provides leverage , while the epiphysis is enlarged to strengthen the joint and provide added surfaces area for the attachment of tendons and ligaments 3. in children and dolescents, the hyaline cartilage separtes the marrow spaces of the epiphysis and diaphysis b. ephysis: the head at each end i. filled with spongy bone ii. where the bones grow in length iii. aduts-epiphyseal plate is depleted and the bones can grow no longer, but an epuphyseal line on the bone surfaces marks the former location of the plate iv. externally covered in periosteum 1. toughg oter fibrous layer, or collagen a. provides attachment and continuity from muscle to tendon to bone b. nutrient foramina: blood vesses of the periosteum penetrate in to the bone through minute holes
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c. internal surface of the bone is
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This note was uploaded on 03/11/2008 for the course ZOO 234 taught by Professor Gruber during the Winter '08 term at Cal Poly Pomona.

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Chapter 6 HA - Chapter 6 : Bones I. Tissues and Organs of...

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