Chapter 10 Human Anatomy - Chapter 10 Muscle Types and...

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Chapter 10 . Muscle Types and Functions I. Types of Muscle a. Skeletal muscle –striated muscle that is usually attached to one ore more bones i. Attach to one or more bones 1. skeletal muscle cells are usually called muscle fibers or myofibers a. protein microfilaments that overlap each other in such a way as to produce or striations b. skeletal muscle is called voluntary-conscious control c. cardiac Muscle –involuntary i. conscious control d. myocytes : not fibrous in shape e. smooth muscle –same contractile proteins as skeletal and cardiac muscle i. myocite cells : short and fusiform in shape , thick in middle and tapered at the ends ii. involuntary b. Function of the muscle i. Movements-mucular contraction also move body contents in the course of respiration , ciculation,and digestion ii. Stanility –resisting the pull of gravity , preventing unwanted movement iii. Communication –facial expression iv. Control of body opening and passages 1. eyelids, pupils , and mouth control the admissions of light, food, and drink into the body ; others that encircle the urethral and anal orifces controld elimination of waste ; and other splincters contro t he movement of food v. Heat production -85 % body heat c. Properties of muscle i. Excitability (responsiveness) –property of all living cells, highest degree in muscle and nerve cells 1. Stimulated by chemical signals, strech , and other stimuli , muscle cells respond with electrical changes across the p, ii. Conductivity
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1. local electrica excitation produced at the point of muscle stimulation is conducted throught the entire pm , initiating the events that lead to contraction iii. extensibility –able to strech btw contraction 1. skeletal muscle can stretch as three times their length iv. Elasticity –muscle cell is stretched and then the tension is released. . it recoils to its original length II. Connective Tissues and Fascicles a. Endomysium : thin sleeve of arreolar connective tissue that surrounds each muscle fibers i. Allows for blood capillaries and nerve fibers , to reach every muscle fiber ii. Perimyslum : a thicker connective tissue sheath that wraps muscle fiber together in bundles called fasicles 1. parallel strands that grain and cut meet iii. Epimysium: fibrous sheath that surrounds the entire muscle 1. extends the ends of many muscles a. tendon-connecting it to the periosteum of a bone iv. deep fascia separate neighboring muscles from each other v. superficial fascia : separates muscles from overlying skin 1. abdomen and buttocks 2. superficial fascia is very fatty , while in area such as the forehead and dorsum of the hand vi. series –elastic components –from endomysium to tendon, linking muscle fibers to bone 1. endomysium perimysium epimysium tendon per iosteum bone matrix .
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  • Winter '08
  • Gruber

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