ch 9. Human Anatomy - Chapter 9 Human Anatomy I...

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Chapter 9 Human Anatomy I. Classification of Joints a. Movable joints, vertebral column , must provide a combination of support and flexibility b. Immovable joints btw the cranial bones afford the best possible protection for the brain and sense organs c. Are classified according to the manner in which the adjacent bones are bound to each other , which corresponding differences in how freely the bones can move . II. Fibrous Joints a. Or synarthorsis , synarthrodial joint : adjacent bones are bound by collagen fibers that emerge from the matrix of the bone, cross the space between them , and penetrate into the matrix of the other i. Sutures, gomphoses and syndesmoses 1. in both suture and gomphose the fibers are very short and allow for little movement 2. syndesmoses-the fibers are longer and the attached bones are more moveable III. Sutures a. Are immovable fibrous joints, closely bind the bones of the skull i. Serrate sutures : wavy lines along which the adjoining bones firmly interlock with each other by their serrated margins , like pieces of jigsaw puzzle. ii. Lap sutures: two bones have overlapping beveled edges 1. ex. Squamous suture btw the temporal and parietal bones iii. Plane sutures: when two bones have straight nonoverlapping edges 1. the palatine process of the maxillae in the roof of the mouth IV. Gomphoses a. the attachment of a tooth to its socket is classified as a joint b. held by fibrous perdiodontal ligament a. collagen fibers that extend from the bone matrix of the jaw into the dental tissue i. allow for teeth to move or “give” a little under the stress of chewing IV. Syndesmoses a. Bound by longer collagenous fibers , giving them more mobility i. The ess movable os the joint that binds the distal ends of the tibia and the fibula together ii. A movable exists between the shafts of the radiys and ulna , joined by by broad fibrous sheet called an interosseous membrane
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V. Cartilaginous Joints a. Amphiarthrosis : joints that are linked by cartilage i. Synachondroses 1. bound by hyaline cartilage a. ex: temporary joints btw the ephpiphysis and diaphyseal of a long bone in a child formed by cartilage of the epiphysis plate b. ex.2 rib to the sternum VI. Symphyses a. Two bones are joined by fibrocartilage i. Ex. Pubic symphysis , in which the right and left pubic bones are joined by the cartilaginous interpubic disc ii. Surface of each vertebral body is coverd with hyaline cartilage 1. btw the vertebrate , this cartilage becomes infiltrated with collagen bundles to form fibro cartilage 2. collective of all 23 disc give the spine flexibility , but one disc permits only slight movement VII. Synovial Joints a. Also known as diarthrosis or diarthrodial joint i. Elbow , knee, or knuckles ii. Structural complex type of joints, develop uncomfortable and crippling dysfunction b. General Anatomy i. Facing surfaces of the two bones are covered with articular cartilage 1. layer of hyaline cartilage 2mm ii. Joint cavity 1. containing a slippery lubricant called synovial fluid i. rich in albumin and hyaluronic acid,
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