# chapter10 - Chapter 10 Thermal Physics Temperature and Heat...

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Chapter 10 Chapter 10 Thermal Physics, Temperature and Heat

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Some Vocabulary Some Vocabulary Thermodynamics: Study of energy transfers (engines) Changes of state (solid, liquid, gas...) Heat: Transfer of microscopic thermal energy Thermal Equilibrium: Condition after two objects are in thermal contact and finish exchanging heat.
Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics If A is in thermal equilibrium with B and B is in thermal equilibrium with C, A is in thermal equilibrium with C. allows definition of temperature objects at thermal equilibrium have same T Heat moves from high T to low T objects

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Thermometer Thermometer s s Exploit temperature sensitivity of volume or length pressure electric resistance color average particle speeds
Temperature Scales Temperature Scales Celsius: Water freezes at 0 ° C, boils at 100 ° C Farenheit: Water freezes at 32 ° F, boils at 212 ° F T (in  °  =  +  °   °  =  °  -  [ ]

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Absolute Temperature Absolute Temperature Kelvin Scale: Lowest possible energy at T=0 ° K Energy minimized at T=0 Ideal gas law only makes sense for absolute scale T (in  °  =  °  - 
Lowest laboratory T ~ 10 -7 ° K At RHIC, T ~ 10 13 ° K In big bang, T ~ 10 40 ° K or more Some Temperatures Some Temperatures

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L L 0 = a D T Thermal Expansion Thermal Expansion At high T increased molecular vibration pushes molecules further apart Coefficient of Linear Expansion Property of Material
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