SAS 30 Final Notes

SAS 30 Final Notes - Dermatophytes -Trichophyton most...

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Dermatophytes -Trichophyton most common cause of dermatitis -Nail Infection (50% of nail problems) -Aspergillus can also cause dermatitis Nail Infection -Infection at tip -Nail bed infected -can also be accompanied by secondary bacterial infection Treatment -remove affected part of nail -topical fungicide -29-36% cure rate -systemic treatment-oral medication -Griseofulvin -Lamisil (70% cure rate) -inhibits ergosterol synthesis -disrupts cell membranes -humans do not have ergosterol -Nail Removal (permanent) Hair Shaft Infection -Black Pierdra Symptoms-Nodules -reproduces in nodules -infections may remain symptom-less for years -Hair: becomes brittle, falls out Treatment: -cut off all hair -apply topical fungicides -access to clean water Skin Infections -Tinea -corporis (body) -pedis (foot) -captis (scalp) -barbae (beard) -ringworm -most common in tropics -tropics serve as incubator for fungi -also common in shoes -wet and warm -people who wear gloves for a long time
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Treatment -topical fungicide -most infections will go away as skin sheds Eye Infections -Mycotic keratitis -growth of fungus on cornea Risk Factors -Trauma + soil (soil introduces fungi) -Eye surgery -Contact lenses (reduces circulation of fluid) -Depressed immune system -opportunistic fungi cause problems in eye -fusarium solani -opportunistic pathogen -causes fruit rot of zucchini Candida Albicans (Yeast) -can cause eye infections -exists predominantly as single cells -reproduces by budding -causes yeast infection -dimorphic -commensal associate -common inhabitant of -skin -mucous membrane -urogenital tract -gastrointestinal tract -host immune system -co-occurring bacteria Thrush -most common in premature infants and the elderly Vaginal Infections -risk factors: -diabetes -pregnancy -antibiotic therapy HIV infections -I.V. drug use can cause heart infections -High gut levels of C.albicans associated with behavioral problems
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Treatment for C.albicans -nystatin -binds to ergosterol -Flucorazole -loss of membrane function -they target fungal cell membrane Pneumosystis jiroveci: -single celled (not a yeast) -mis-identified as a protozoan -causes pneumonia -rate until late 1970s -affected Gay men -Fatal -called the “gay flu” -led to discovery of AIDS -defining diagnosis for 63% of AIDS patients in 1987 -major cause of preventable mortality in AIDS patients -without treatment, 85% would develop the disease -single cells inhaled -thought to come from pigeon dung (real source unknown) -lung infection -disseminated if immune system compromised Treated with: Trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazin -given to AIDS patients before symptoms as a preventative Symbiosis-living together, can be used for all types of relationships Mutualism-a relationship between organisms where both partners benefit Clownfish-mutualistic with sea anemone Lamprey-only leach benefits Mycorrhiza-resource mutualism -mycorrhiza increase nutrient uptake by increasing surface area (hypahe = 10x smaller than roots) -fungi provide scare nutritents (Nitrogen and Phosphorus) -Fungi digest for outside of their body
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SAS 30 Final Notes - Dermatophytes -Trichophyton most...

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