lesson 2 - Priming-activating particular associations in...

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Priming -activating particular associations in memory; ppl’s prejudgments have effect on how they perceive & interpret info. Belief perseverance - persistence of one’s initial conceptions, as when the basis for one’s beliefs is discredited but an explanation of why the belief might be true survives Misinformation effect - incorporating “misinfo.” Into one’s memory of the event, after witnessing an event and receiving misleading info. about it *other experiments have planted judgments or false ideas in people’s minds after they have been given info. these experiments reveal before-the-fact judgments bias our perceptions and interpretations, so after-the-fact judgments bias our recall Controlled processing “Explicit” thinking that is deliberated, reflective, and conscious Automatic processing situational; “Implicit” thinking that is effortless, habitual, and without awareness, roughly corresponds to “intuition” Overconfidence phenomenon - tendency to be more confident than correct-to over estimate the accuracy of one’s beliefs Conforming bias - tendency to search for info that confirms one’s preconceptions Heuristic - a thinking strategy that enables quick, efficient judgments Representativeness heuristic - tendency to presume, sometimes despite contrary odds, that someone or something belongs to a particular group if resembling (representing)a typical member Availability heuristic - cognitive rule that judges the likelihood of things in terms of their availability in memory. If instances of something come readily to mind, we presume it to be commonplace Counterfactual thinking - imagining alternative scenarios and outcomes that might have happened, but didn’t Illusory correlation - perception of a relationship where none exists, or perception of a stronger relationship than actually exists Illusion of control - perception of uncontrollable events as subject to one’s control or as more controllable
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