chapter17_ElecChargandElecField

chapter17_ElecChargandElecField - Chapter 17 Electric...

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    Chapter 17 Electric Charge and Electric Field
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    First Observations – Greeks  Observed electric and magnetic  phenomena as early as 700 BC Found that amber, when rubbed, became  electrified and attracted pieces of straw or  feathers Also discovered magnetic forces by observing  magnetite attracting iron
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    Benjamin Franklin 1706 – 1790 Printer, author,  founding father,  inventor, diplomat Physical Scientist 1740’s work on  electricity changed  unrelated  observations into  coherent science
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    Properties of Electric Charges Two types of charges exist They are called positive and negative Named by Benjamin Franklin Like charges repel and unlike charges attract  one another Nature’s basic carrier of positive charge is the  proton Protons do not move from one material to another  because they are held firmly in the nucleus
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    More Properties of Charge Nature’s basic carrier of negative charge is  the electron Gaining or losing electrons is how an object  becomes charged Electric charge is always conserved Charge is not created, only exchanged Objects become charged because negative  charge is transferred from one object to another
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    Properties of Charge, final Charge is quantized All charge is a multiple of a fundamental unit of  charge, symbolized by e Quarks are the exception Electrons have a charge of –e Protons have a charge of +e The SI unit of charge is the Coulomb (C) e = 1.6 x 10 -19  C
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    Conductors Conductors are materials in which the  electric charges move freely in  response to an electric force Copper, aluminum and silver are good  conductors When a conductor is charged in a small  region, the charge readily distributes itself  over the entire surface of the material
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    Insulators Insulators are materials in which electric  charges do not move freely Glass and rubber are examples of  insulators When insulators are charged by rubbing,  only the rubbed area becomes charged There is no tendency for the charge to move  into other regions of the material
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    Semiconductors The characteristics of semiconductors  are between those of insulators and  conductors Silicon and germanium are examples of  semiconductors
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    Charging by Conduction A charged object (the rod) is  placed in contact with  another object (the sphere) Some electrons on the rod  can move to the sphere When the rod is removed,  the sphere is left with a  charge The object being charged is  always left with a charge  having the same sign as the  object doing the charging
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