chapter18_ElecPotentialElecEnergy

chapter18_ElecPotentialElecEnergy - Chapter 18 Electric...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 18 Electric Potential and Electric Energy Electric Potential Energy The electrostatic force is a conservative force It is possible to define an electrical potential energy function with this force Work done by a conservative force is equal to the negative of the change in potential energy Work and Potential Energy There is a uniform field between the two plates As the charge moves from A to B, work is done on it W = Fd=q E x (x f x i ) PE = - W = - q E x (x f x i ) only for a uniform field Potential Difference The potential difference between points A and B is defined as the change in the potential energy (final value minus initial value) of a charge q moved from A to B divided by the size of the charge V = V B V A = PE / q Potential difference is not the same as potential energy Potential Difference, cont. Another way to relate the energy and the potential difference: PE = q V Both electric potential energy and potential difference are scalar quantities Units of potential difference V = J/C A special case occurs when there is a uniform electric field V = V B V A = -E x x Gives more information about units: N/C = V/m Energy and Charge Movements A positive charge gains electrical potential energy when it is moved in a direction opposite the electric field If a charge is released in the electric field, it experiences a force and accelerates, gaining kinetic energy As it gains kinetic energy, it loses an equal amount of electrical potential energy A negative charge loses electrical potential energy when it moves in the direction opposite the electric field Energy and Charge Movements, cont When the electric field is directed downward, point B is at a lower potential than point A A positive test charge that moves from A to B loses electric potential energy It will gain the same amount of kinetic energy as it loses in potential energy Summary of Positive Charge Movements and Energy When a positive charge is placed in an electric field It moves in the direction of the field It moves from a point of higher potential to a point of lower potential Its electrical potential energy decreases Its kinetic energy increases Summary of Negative Charge Movements and Energy When a negative charge is placed in an electric field It moves opposite to the direction of the field It moves from a point of lower potential to a point...
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chapter18_ElecPotentialElecEnergy - Chapter 18 Electric...

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