chapter16_Sound

chapter16_Sound - Chapter 16 Sound Producing a Sound Wave...

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    Chapter 16 Sound
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    Producing a Sound Wave Sound waves are longitudinal waves traveling  through a medium A tuning fork can be used as an example of  producing a sound wave
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    Using a Tuning Fork to  Produce a Sound Wave A tuning fork will produce a pure  musical note As the tines vibrate, they disturb  the air near them As the tine swings to the right, it  forces the air molecules near it  closer together This produces a high density  area in the air This is an area of compression
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    Using a Tuning Fork, cont. As the tine moves toward  the left, the air molecules  to the right of the tine  spread out This produces an area of  low density This area is called a  rarefaction
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    Using a Tuning Fork, final As the tuning fork continues to vibrate, a succession  of compressions and rarefactions spread out from the  fork A sinusoidal curve can be used to represent the  longitudinal wave Crests correspond to compressions and troughs to  rarefactions
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    Categories of Sound Waves Audible waves Lay within the normal range of hearing of the  human ear Normally between 20 Hz to 20,000 Hz Infrasonic waves Frequencies are below the audible range Earthquakes are an example Ultrasonic waves Frequencies are above the audible range Dog whistles are an example
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    Applications of Ultrasound Can be used to produce images of small  objects Widely used as a diagnostic and treatment  tool in medicine Ultrasonic flow meter to measure blood flow May use  piezoelectric  devices that transform electrical energy into  mechanical energy Reversible: mechanical to electrical Ultrasounds to observe babies in the womb Cavitron Ultrasonic Surgical Aspirator (CUSA) used to surgically  remove brain tumors Ultrasonic ranging unit for cameras
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    Speed of Sound in a Liquid In a liquid, the speed depends on the liquid’s  compressibility and inertia B is the Bulk Modulus of the liquid  is the density of the liquid ρ Compares with the equation for a transverse wave  on a string B v ρ =
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    Speed of Sound in a Solid  Rod The speed depends on the rod’s  compressibility and inertial properties Y is the Young’s Modulus of the material  is the density of the material ρ ρ = Y v
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    Speed of Sound, General The speed of sound is higher in solids than in  gases The molecules in a solid interact more strongly The speed is slower in liquids than in solids Liquids are more compressible property inertial property elastic v =
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    Speed of Sound in Air 331 m/s is the speed of sound at 0° C T is the absolute temperature 331 273 m T v s K =
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This note was uploaded on 07/26/2008 for the course PHYS 204 taught by Professor Gomez during the Spring '08 term at Citadel.

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chapter16_Sound - Chapter 16 Sound Producing a Sound Wave...

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