Mexican Independence Research Project

Mexican Independence Research Project - Joseph 1 Ben Joseph...

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Joseph 1 Ben Joseph Mr. Scofield History of the Americas 6 November 2006 La Independencia de México The Hidalgo Revolt of 1810 incited the commencement of a series of conflicts that brought independence to Mexico in 1821. Hidalgo's attempt ultimately failed, due to the lack of cooperation among Mexico's many social classes, and his failure to capitulate Mexico City. The insurgency started out violently, and ended the same way with Hidalgo's execution. Hidalgo's death failed to suppress the independence movement, as there were many insurgent leaders ready and willing to take his place. However, the first successful attempt for Independence only came in 1821, from an unlikely source; it was called the Plan of Iguala. Unlike the previous independence movements, the Plan of Iguala was led by a Spanish officer named Agustín de Iturbide and it rallied the Creoles. The movement was successful in achieving independence, however, Iturbide's failure to develop an agreement among the social classes on how to run the new empire would yield grave consequences for the fledgling, new nation (Guedea). Describing the Mexican Independence movement beginning with Hidalgo's cry of "Death to Gachupines," and ending 11 years later with the crowning of Iturbide fails to provide sufficient connections and historical background on the issues that were present during the movement's lifetime. Only by examining issues in pre-independent Mexico, and analyzing the outcome of the movement can a more complete understanding be obtained. In the 1800s, Mexico, or New Spain was a colony bestowed with vast natural resources, but great social rifts (Ruggiero 91). New Spain consisted of four classes the Peninsulares, the Creoles, the Mestizos, and the Indians. There were great social divisions among these classes, especially between the Creoles and the Peninsulares. The only physical difference between the Peninsulares and the Creoles were their respective birthplaces (Hamill 19). However the Peninsulares had a greater amount of influence in the New World than most Creoles did. Leaders in Spain reasoned that since Peninsulares lived and had family in Spain, they would refrain from absconding funds from Spain, or promoting the separation of New Spain from the main metropolis (Hamill 20). The Creoles argued that they were most fit to represent New Spain, since they "had a better notion of the administrative needs of the area," than a foreigner that had interests thousands of miles away (Hamill 22). This created some divisions between the Peninsulares and the Creoles, eventually these divisions would turn into full
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Joseph 2 grown animosity. The Mestizo majority and the Indians also felt resentment towards the descendants of the conquistadors, as they held a disproportionate amount of wealth from running haciendas, while the rest of the population suffered from poverty (Humboldt). Over 300 years of exploitation by the Spanish came out in a fit of anger during the Hidalgo Revolt, when thousands of Gachupines (Peninsulares)
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This note was uploaded on 07/26/2008 for the course HIST 3004 taught by Professor Arekirch during the Fall '06 term at Virginia Tech.

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Mexican Independence Research Project - Joseph 1 Ben Joseph...

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