Psychology 9B _ Ch 11 _ Part 2

Psychology 9B _ Ch 11 _ Part 2 - MORAL DEVELOPMENT Morality...

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MORAL DEVELOPMENT Morality – a sense of right and wrong Moral Judgment Lawrence Kohlberg’s stages of moral reasoning o Preconventional reasoning – focus on avoiding punishments and getting rewards (“will get in trouble”) o Conventional reasoning – centered on social relationships (gaining approval or avoiding disapproval) and conventions and duties (codes of law and order) o Postconventional reasoning – ideals and broad moral principles Carol Gillian – Kohlberg did a better job reflecting the moral reasoning of males than females o Men see morality as a matter of justice, ultimately based on abstract, rational principles by which all individuals will end up being treated fairly o Women see morality more in terms of compassion, human relationships, and special responsibilities to those with whom one is intimately connected However, no reliable sex difference in Kohlberg’s tests but men and women do emphasize different values in moral reasoning Cultural differences o Those from countries that are less technologically developed score lower on Kohlberg’s test because under some circumstances, the most likely outcome is a more concrete morality that gives the greatest weight to care, responsibility and loyalty There is still value to Kohlberg’s theory, children do seem to progress through stages where there is a strong correlation between child’s age and maturity of moral reasoning, there is a link between moral maturity and likelihood to behave morally Moral behavior is motivated by many factors o Sense of empathy, sense of shame and guilt o But Kohlberg’s study sets emotional factors aside so must go beyond Kohlberg to see understand the role played by emotional factors Learning to Be Moral Conscience – the desire to act in a moral manner and a feeling of guilt when one does not act morally One theory that children learn through rewards and punishments but the sense of conscience is less likely to emerge in children whose parents relied on severe or harsh discipline (spanking, for example, decreases internalization of a moral code) The child’s relationship is key to developing a moral sense o Children become sensitive to adult’s signs of approval and disapproval and this disapproval is upsetting because it undermines a social relationship Therefore child does all she can to avoid disapproval o The better the quality of the parent-child relationship, the faster the child’s progress in developing a conscience (things such as a secure attachment or responsiveness are associated with conscience development) Other factors include the fact that children tend to see patterns of the world as rigid and obligatory and is able to draw from these patterns beliefs about how one should act - “is” to “should” Conversation is once again important - Inspire understanding and empathy which are crucial for moral behavior Prosocial Behaviors and Empathy Capacity for empathy important for prosocial behavior
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This note was uploaded on 07/27/2008 for the course PSYC 68050 taught by Professor Wright during the Spring '08 term at UC Irvine.

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Psychology 9B _ Ch 11 _ Part 2 - MORAL DEVELOPMENT Morality...

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