ROSS:Main Idea: Prima Facie Duties; the right and good are properties known by intuition, and that because duties may conflict, they hold only prima facie. Criticizes ethical egoism, hedonistic utilitarianism, and ideal utilitarianism1.Ethical Egoism: the moral theory that says than an action is right if and only if it is in the long-term interests of the person who performs it.2.Hedonistic Utilitarianism: pleasure is no the only thing that we recognize as being intrinsically (belonging naturally; essential) good, we recognize other things as also having intrinsic value. 3.Ideal Utilitarianism: the moral theory that says that an action is right if and only if the net amount of intrinsic value it brings into the world is greater than any other comparable action the agent could have chosen.Insists that right can NOTmean productive of something (the word right cannot be defined as being productive of something) For a good definition you need the same idea on both sidesThe real point at issue is the utilitarian view: producing the most good is what makes a right action right.Criticizes Socrates’ position, in Plato’s Republic, that when a person is just there should be a reward (happiness)oShould we think that being personally happy is what makes a just action? No; rightness is not about personal happiness, but sacrifice in order to spread happiness. According to Ross, what are good things the hedonistic utilitarianism left out? oIntelligent understanding of the world (is not bound to make you happy)oHaving good character oIs pleasure the only good thing worth pursuing? No. What refinement can Utilitarian’s make to overcome Ross’s position/crisis?oIdeal Utilitarianism pursuers good…eliminating evil from the worldoUtilitarian test to what makes right actions right deals with looking at future implications of said action. “Is this the way the plain man thinks?”-RossRoss claims the plan man would say “Keep the promise is right because I made the promise”What makes right actions right deals with the past, not the future implications Ideal Utilitarianism regards people as producers or receivers of good/eviloIgnores the person character of duty Prima Facie Duty: based on the first impression; accepted as correct until proved otherwise.Sometimes when we need to make a moral decision we will have multiple, conflicting moral pressures at the same time. How does one handle this? We must form an opinion, deciding between the duties for which on is more of a duty.