BOXER REBELLION - BOXER REBELLION BACKGROUND By the end of...

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BOXER REBELLION: BACKGROUND By the end of the 19th century, the Western powers and Japan had forced  China’s ruling Qing dynasty to accept wide foreign control over the  country’s economic affairs. In the Opium Wars (1839-42, 1856-60), popular rebellions and the Sino-Japanese War (1894-95), China had fought to  resist the foreigners, but it lacked a modernized military and suffered  millions of casualties. Did You Know? America returned the money it received from China after the  Boxer Rebellion, on the condition it be used to fund the creation  of a university in Beijing. Other nations involved later remitted  their shares of the Boxer indemnity as well. By the late 1890s, a Chinese secret group, the Society of Righteous and  Harmonious Fists (“I-ho-ch’uan” or “Yihequan”), had begun carrying out  regular attacks on foreigners and Chinese Christians. (The rebels  performed calisthenics rituals and martial arts that they believed would give them the ability to withstand bullets and other forms of attack. Westerners  referred to these rituals as shadow boxing, leading to the Boxers  nickname.) Although the Boxers came from various parts of society, many 
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