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Exam Review - Question 2 I As the pace of scientific...

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Question 2: I. As the pace of scientific advancement has increased, new fields of science have been created as a result of a numerous great achievements. However, while the accumulation of more scientific knowledge often brings many benefits (efficiency, less waste, etc.), technical innovations also bring up new issues affecting both science and society. As scientific innovation has increased, the number of issues concerning the relationship between science and the public has increased. - One dislikes what one doesn’t understand o As scientific policy and processes have become more complex, public has become disengaged from scientific realm This is important as we are becoming technocracy (Raynor-electoral decline in age of assessment) Argument over whether Science is inherently political, must access both social and scientific outcome. Principles of accessibility, transparency, and accountability (Guston). We can only realize these through debate. Guston also says some priorities of research should come from local citizens - In spite of any attempts by government to involve public in debates about technical application, contentious debate is bound to occur between science and society due to the different objects of both of these constituencies. In spite of improvements, issues remain o Difficult for public to engage in debate in current settings as political- cultural constraints reduce complex issues into scientific framework (Raynor) Constituencies looking from different views - We must embrace the complexity of the social/bio system (Frickel) o Frickel discusses how knowledge of risk is social. Communication is key as it certifies policy by making it culturally legitimate While federal policy and legislation has attempted to ameliorate many of these contentious issues, it has not resulted in the eradication of societal-technical tension as new issues are repeatedly emerging. II. Bioethics In 1968, Congress began to become concerned with medical ethics as the first successful human heart transplant was performed Equity issue of who receives transplant - Walter Mondale attempted to spearhead commission which would regulate medical profession Controversy over whether regulation would hinder innovation as public is too emotional (public claims scientists are concerned more with success of work than its public benefit- imagine Orwellian society of behavior control Rothman)
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- However, in 1974, Kennedy was able to establish Commission for protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavorial Research o Occurred for 2 reasons Scandals (Tuskegee, Cincinnati radiation both take advantage of uneducated) Took in all of scientific academia However, with the increasing importance of bioethics as a scientific field, people have argued that ethical assessments from bioethicists are having too great an influence on the application of science.
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