Zoology exam two study guide

Zoology exam two study guide - Zoology exam two study guide...

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Zoology exam two study guide Chapter five: 1) Protozoa belong to which kingdom: Protidta 2) Phylums: Euglenozoa: Are a large group of flagellate protozoa. They include a variety of common free-living species, as well as a few important parasites, some of which infect humans. These are found in fresh water. 1 or 2 flagella. Pellicle: thin layer supporting the cell membrane. Mainly phytoflagellates, some zooflagellates. Orients to light source. o Class Trypanosomatidea: parasitic, asexually reproduce in fly gut, then migrate to salivary glands. Ciliophora: Ciliates, marine and freshwater habitats, cilia, distinct cytostome (mouth) locomotion and feeding, the cilia beat in coordinated waves. Discharged trichocusts pellicular structures. They have two types of nuclei Macronucleus: controls general cell operations, metabolic activity. Micronucleus: reproductive function (synthesizes DNA) Asexual (binary fission) and sexual reproduction (conjugation)
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Dinozoa/Dinoflagellata: aquatic habitats, phytoflagellates: important food base of food webs. Two flagella: equatorial (transverse) longitudinal. Dinozoa: autotrophs, mutualistic associations, coral reefs, many produce toxic substances, accumulate in suspension feeders. Apicomplexa: primarily marine, all parasitic (endoparsitic) apical complex, no obvious locomotor organelles, heterotroph. This has malria ( Genus: plasmodium) coccidiosis: disease of poultry, sheep, cattle and rabbits. (genus Isopora and Eimeria) Toxoplasmosis: disease of mammals, humans and birds. (Genus: Toxoplasma) Amoebazoa: most free living in aquatic habitats, however, some are pathogens of humans. Some have flagellated life stage, naked or shelled. Heterotrophic, pinocytosis and phagocytosis. Amoeba: Pathogens, Entamoeba coli, can cause temportary mild gastrointestinal distress, E. histolutica: causes amobic dysentery, Naegleria fowleri: causes meningitis, enters through nasal passages. 3) What is the endosymbiont Hypothesis: proposes that these organelles were once prokaryotic cells, living inside larger host cells. The prokaryotes may initially have been parasites or have been an intended meal for the larger cell, somehow escaping digestion. 4) Level of organization: protoplasmic: the complex, semifluid, transclucent substance that constitutes the interior matter of a livening cell and is composed of protiens, fats and other stuff. They are also unicellular. 5) This is a polyphletic group because it has the same immediate ancestors as plants and animals, also because this group does not contain all the descendants of its most recent common ancestor. 6) An Autotroph is an organism that is able to form nutritional organic substances from simple inorganic substances such as carbon dioxide. An heterotroph is an organism deriving its nutritional requirements from complex organic substances.
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