l24 - Today The nature of the Universe - Beyond the...

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ISP209s7 Lecture 24 -1- Today • The nature of the Universe - Beyond the Standard Model – Dark Matter and Dark Energy – String Theory and the quest to unify gravity and quantum theory – Begin watching PBS NOVA special “The Elegant Universe” on String Theory
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ISP209s7 Lecture 24 -2- The goals of science • Reach an understanding based on the fundamental building blocks of nature and their interactions. • Human bias – simple is better; one equation should describe everything (goal of string theory) • The standard model is our current collection of fact. It does not answer the why question.
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ISP209s7 Lecture 24 -3- How do we know what things are made of? Multi-walled carbon nanotube MSU Center for Advanced Microscopy TEM Microscope = 5x10 -9 m
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ISP209s7 Lecture 24 -4- The highest magnification possible 0.136nm separation between Si atoms TEM Image of a Silicon crystal http://www.ceo.msu.edu/ MSU Center for Advanced Microscopy Xudong Fan , MSU Image of Si [110] We can see pairs of silicon atoms.
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What We Made Of? • We are made out of atoms. The size of atoms is 10 -9 m = nm • Atoms are made of nuclei and electrons (+ energy; E=mc 2 ) • Nuclei are made of neutrons and protons (plus the stuff that binds them, mesons) • Neutrons, Protons and Mesons are made of quarks (10 -16 m). We can measure down to 10 -18 m • What are quarks made of? The answer may be strings, but the size is 10 -35 m too small for us to explore (at the moment).
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l24 - Today The nature of the Universe - Beyond the...

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