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Elimination Notes✓The cluster of capillaries in each nephron is known as the glomerulus. The urethra is the structure through which urine travels from the bladder and passes to the outside of the body. The trigone is the name given to the fixed base of the urinary bladder. The detrusor is the bladder’s distensible body. ✓Laxatives are often prescribed to promote defecation in patients with constipation. Codeine and opium tincture may be used to manage chronic severe diarrhea in patients with Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis, or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Loperamide is also an antidiarrheal agent.✓Postvoid residual can be assessed using a portable noninvasive bladder ultrasound device, which helps to determine the amount of urine left in the bladder after voiding. A cystoscopy helps to visualize the structures of the urinary tract. An x-ray exam of the abdomen may show the condition of abdominal organs but is not helpful in determining the residual urine left in the bladder. An intravenous pyelogram may help to determine the function of the kidneys but does not help in determining postvoid residual.✓Functional incontinence is a loss of continence with a cause outside the urinarytract, usually related to functional deficits such as altered mobility and manual dexterity. Parkinson’s disease alters a patient’s mobility, which canresult in functional incontinence. Transient incontinence is caused by medical conditions that in many cases are treatable and reversible. Parkinson’s disease and its associated problems of mobility are not reversible. Reflex urinary incontinence is related to spinal cord damage between C1 and S2; it is not associated with mobility problems caused by Parkinson’s disease. Overflow urinary incontinence is related to bladder outlet obstruction or poor bladder emptying because of weak or absent bladder contractions, not Parkinson’s disease.✓Aspirin is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) used to relieve pain. Itis a prostaglandin inhibitor. Aspirin interferes with the secretion of protective mucus and thereby increases the risk of gastric bleeding. Glycopyrrolate inhibits gastric acid secretion and depresses gastrointestinal motility; it does not increase the risk of gastric bleeding. Dicyclomine HCl suppresses peristalsis and decreases gastric emptying; it
does not increase the risk of gastric bleeding. Iron supplements cause discoloration of the stool, nausea, constipation, and abdominal cramps as side effects.