Infection Control Notes✓A patient with pneumonia and a patient with viral meningitis are at a low risk of disease transmission. A patient with Ebola, a patient with influenza, and a patient with chickenpox are at a high risk of disease transmission because these conditions can spread through direct contact.✓The multilayered surface of the skin acts as a barrier against microorganisms. The periodic shedding of outer layers of the skin helps in removing organisms that adhere to the outer layers of the skin. The sebum secreted from the skin glands contains fatty acids that have antibacterial action. Theskin does not help in washing away particles containing microorganisms orhave microbial-inhibiting action. Saliva in the oral cavity helps to perform these actions.✓Clostridium difficile is a common spore-forming bacterium that causes antibiotic-induced diarrhea. Bacteroides fragilis are normal flora of the human colon that may cause infections when displaced into the bloodstream or tissues near the site of injury or surgery. Staphylococcus aureus can cause wound infection and pneumonia. Legionella pneumophila can grow in 25-degree to 42-degree water. This microorganism may not cause antibiotic-induced diarrhea. ✓Bronchoscopy bypasses the natural defenses of the body and predisposes the patient to HAIs. Broad-spectrum antibiotics suppress the normal flora and promote growth of resistant strains of microorganisms. An indwelling urinary catheter bypasses the natural defenses and also serves as a port of entry for microorganisms. Diabetes mellitus suppresses the body’s immunity and increases the risk of HAIs. Fever does not affect the natural defense mechanism, and therefore does not increase the risk of HAIs.✓The immune system of the child matures with age. An infant’s immune system is incapable of producing immunoglobulins and white blood cells. Cell-mediated immunity decreases with an increase in age because older adults experience alterations in the structure and function of body parts. Young and middle-aged adults have refined defenses and immunity against infections. Breastfed infants receive antibodies through breast milk;these infants have greater immunity than infants who are bottle-fed.
✓A closed urinary catheter drainage system helps to contain microorganisms and prevent the spread of infection. An IV access site should be changed as soon as signs of inflammation appear. Inflammation can lead to infection. Microorganisms can be introduced into the airway if aseptic technique is not followed for suctioning. Repeated catheter irrigation may