PHARM TEST 2 OBJECTIVES - PHARM TEST 2 OBJECTIVES Barton...

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PHARM TEST 2 OBJECTIVES Barton College School of Nursing NUR 318 01/24/17 TOPIC: PART THREE: DRUGS AFFECTING THE AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM VOCABULARY : Adrenergic - Drugs that stimulate the sympathetic nerve fibers of the autonomic nervous system that use epinephrine or epinephrine-like substances as neurotransmitters. (p. 580 ) (Lilley 575) Sympathomimetic- A class of drugs whose effects mimic those resulting from the stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system. (p. 581 ) (Lilley 575) Also called Adrenergic Agonist Agonist- Drugs with a specific receptor affinity that mimic the body's natural chemicals (e.g., hormones, neurotransmitters). (p. 313 ) (Lilley 312) Catecholamine- Substances that can produce a sympathomimetic response. They are either endogenous catecholamines (such as epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine) or synthetic catecholamine drugs (such as dobutamine). (p. 299 ) (Lilley 298) Orthostatic Hypotension- A common adverse effect of adrenergic blocking drugs involving a sudden drop in blood pressure when a person changes position, especially when rising from a seated or horizontal position. (p. 352 ) (Lilley 347) Acetylcholine- he neurotransmitter responsible for transmission of nerve impulses to effector cells in the parasympathetic nervous system. (p. 325 ) (Lilley 324) Atony- A lack of normal muscle tone (p. 326 ) (Lilley 324) Miosis The contraction of the pupil. (p. 326 ) (Lilley 324) Mydriasis- Pupillary dilation, whether natural (physiologic) or drug induced. (p. 303 ) (Lilley 298) OBJECTIVES : Upon completion of the learning activities the student will be able to:
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1. Compare the functions and controls of the sympathetic and parasympathetic branches of the autonomic nervous system. STRUCTURE SYMPATHETIC PARASYMPATHETIC Eye (Pupil) Dilation Constriction Nasal Mucosa Mucous Reduction Mucous Increased Salivary Gland Saliva Reduction Saliva Increased Heart Rate Increased Rate decreased Arteries Constriction Dilation Lung Bronchial mus. Relaxation Bronchial mus. Contraction GI Tract Decreased motility Increased motility Liver Conversion of Glycogen to Glucose Increased Glycogen Synthesis Kidney Decreased Urine Increased Urine Bladder Contraction of Sphincter Relaxation of sphincter Swear Glands Increased Sweating NO Change
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2. List drugs classified as adrenergic agonists or sympathomimetics. Adrenergic Agonist- Drugs that stimulate and mimic the actions of the sympathetic nervous system. Also called sympathomimetics . (p. 299 ) Norepinephrine Norepinephrine (Levophed) acts predominantly by directly stimulating alpha-adrenergic receptors, which leads to vasoconstriction. It also has some direct- stimulating beta-adrenergic effects on the heart (beta 1 -adrenergic receptors) but none on the lung (beta 2 -adrenergic receptors). Norepinephrine is directly metabolized to dopamine and is used primarily in the treatment of hypotension and shock. It is given only by continuous infusion.
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