Part3Questions2 - Indicate whether a box or a trombone coil...

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Unformatted text preview: Indicate whether a box or a trombone coil should be used for steam heating and hot water heating 10. ‘ ry greenhouse should have an emergency electrical generator. The generator should ideally have a acity of 1 kilo for every square foot of greenhouse floor. 11. Determin e net boiler output required to heat the greenhouse sketched below assuming the u ' r is located inside the greenho - The inside temperature at night is 60°F, the lowest anticipated outside tempe r re is 0°F, the average wind velocity is mph, the greenhouse is all metal covered with tight glass, and th rtain wall is 8 inch thick concrete block. CHAPTER 4 1. Determine the following specificati : for the summer cooling system of . - greenhouse sketched and described below: a) on which walls should the fans and p ~ be installed, b) the num r and capacity of exhaust fans, c) the heights and width of a 4 in. thick crossfluted pad, and ' he volume of the 2 - mp tank. ' 2. Determine the following specifications for a w1 ‘ coolin ’ stem for the greenhouse described in question 1: a) the capacity of the exhaust fan, b) the number and dia of air distribution tubes needed, and c) the capacity of each pressurizing fan. 3. Sketch and/or describe an integrated heating, 5 er coolin - d winter cooling system and describe the sequence of operations. 4. How does water in the greenhouse o o u g pad cool the air passing t ugh it? 5. What problems can be encounte 2- in the air flow pattern in a su cooling system and how can they be P counteracted? 6. The ideal distance betwee ans and pads in a summer cooling system is - - 7. Fans in a summer . t u g pad-and-fan cooling system should not be more than apart. 8. Water droplet si : n a fog cooling system is microns. 9. Where shoul t e fog nozzles be located in a greenhouse cooling system which uses exhaust n ? 10. In additi o cooling, what other uses can the fog system have in a greenhouse? 11. Wh ' air introduced into the greenhouse through a tube in the winter cooling system? 12. i ’- must the exhaust fan capacity in a winter cooling system be equal to or less than the combined press ‘ 'ng fan capacity? Third Exam CHAPTER 5 1. Explain in detail why field soils do not generally function well in greenhouse containers. 2. Why is it not sufficient to simply make the texture of a field soil coarser when using it in a greenhouse container? 3. Consider a pot measuring 3 inches deep and a cut flower bench 8 inches deep. Both contain the same root medium, were recently watered and have just stopped draining. How do the air and water contents in a cubic inch of medium located in the top inch of each container compare? 4. How do the air and water contents in a cubic inch of medium located in the bottom inch of each container described in question 3 compare? 5. What is meant by cation exchange capacity (CEC)? What is the benefit of CEC? What is an acceptable level for CEC in greenhouse root media? Name two root media components with high CEC levels. 6. With reference to water, what is meant by container capacity? 7. A desirable carbon to nitrogen ratio for organic matter added to greenhouse root media is to 8. What problems can occur from using pine sawdust in a greenhouse root medium? 9. What components (other than fertilizer chemicals) are in the classical greenhouse root medium and what role does each provide? 10. When formulating greenhouse root media, the type of peat moss that is almost always used is and the type of sand is 11. What role does perlite serve in root media? 12. Give three reasons for using a soilless root medium rather than a soil-base medium. 13. What is a problem encountered when peat-lite type media dry out and how is it counteracted? CHAPTER 6 1. How should root media be prepared prior to applying steam or chemicals for pasteurization? 2. What is the proper timing and temperature for steam pasteurization? Nelson, Questions, pg 3 3. Why do we refer to soil pasteurization and not soil sterilization? 4. Why is aerated steam preferred to steam taken straight from the boiler? 5. Where in the greenhouse bench should the thermometer be situated during pasteurization and why? 6. One boiler horsepower of steam capacity is sufficient to pasteurize cubic feet of root medium per hour. 7. Describe the nutritional problems which can arise from pasteurization and explain why these occur. 8. What advantages and disadvantages does chemical pasteurization offer compared to steam? 9. The chemical most often used for pasteurization of greenhouse root media is . It is used at the rate of pound per cubic yard of medium. It should not be used below a temperature of °F. The treated root medium should be covered for days. It is then aerated for days before handling. Seeds can be planted in it days and cuttings days after aeration began. 10. How can one be certain when it is safe to plant in a chemically pasteurized root medium? 11. Indicate the type of pasteurization which pertains to each statement. S - steamM - methylbromideC - chloropicrin Cannot be used in greenhouses containing other plants. Cannot be used for camations. The most popular chemical for greenhouse pasteurization. Gives the most complete kill of all troublesome organisms. 12. Two good disinfectants for sterilizing tools and plastic pots are and CHAPTER 7 1. The characteristic symptom of oxygen deficiency (over watering) is 2. What is meant by over watering in the greenhouse situation? 3. The quantity of water generally required per square foot of greenhouse fresh flower root medium is per one inch medium depth. 4. If you were a crop production manager, what would you say to your grower to teach him or her when to water and how much to apply? 5. Before leaving for the weekend, a greenhouse manager notices that the root medium in his greenhouse is dry. There is insufficient time to thoroughly water before making an evening appointment which he has. He decides to use the available time and apply half of the water required to the whole crop. This he figures will buy him half of the standard length of time between waterings. What do you think about this manager’s decision? 15 it right or wrong and why? 6. Name the three major pot watering systems. Indicate the advantages and disadvantages of each. 7. Name two fresh flower watering systems. Describe or sketch each indicating how it works and how it is laid out. 8. Why is an attachment placed on the pot end of the thin polyethylene tubes which deliver water to each individual pot in an automatic pot watering system? 9. What are the advantages and disadvantages to a grower for changing from a small inside diameter to a large inside diameter in the pot watering micro tubes of an automatic system? 10. How does an automatic watering system fit into the scheme of root media pasteurization and general greenhouse sanitation? CHAPTER 8 l. Tabulate the complete list of essential nutrients spelling out the full name and chemical symbol of each and its classification. 2. What fertilizers are typically used in formulating a root medium and which essential nutrients does each supply? 3. What form or forms of nitrogen would you use for greenhouse crops in general? 4. The most common ratio of nitrogen to potassium for greenhouse crop fertilization is to . 5. Fertilizer solution can be applied to greenhouse crops at two frequencies. Either system is effective. These frequencies are or . 6. Using the attached Table 8-3 from the text, indicate how many ounces of potassium nitrate (13-0-44) and ammonium nitrate (33—0—0) to add to 100 gallons of water to yield a solution of approximately 200 ppm nitrogen (N) and 200 ppm potassium (K20). 7. How much 20-20-20 would you dissolve in 15 gallons of water in a Gewa fertilizer proportioner if the proportioner were set on a ratio of 100:1 and you wanted to apply this fertilizer at a rate of 2 lbs per 100 gal of water? 8. Three important considerations entering into the selection of a fertilizer proportioner for a greenhouse range are? 9. Two reasons why visual diagnosis is the poorest method of determining nutrient status are? Nelson, Questions, pg 4 10. Match the following. the Poinsettia is the only crop in which we see this deficiency a. N little leaf disease b. P uniform chlorosis of the lower leaves of plants c. K uniform chlorosis of the entire plant at one time d. Ca severe stunting, deep green foliage, purpling of leaves e. Mg burning of the margins of lower leaves f. S interveinal chlorosis of upper leaves g. Fe interveinal chlorosis of lower leaves h. Mn interveinal chlorosis of upper leaves with tan necrotic spots i. Zn witches broom, incomplete flower formation, rusty discolorations j. Cu k. B 1. Mo 11. The pH of root media can be lowered by applying , , or 12. The soluble salt level above which injury usually occurs in a 1:2 extract is? 13. A high soluble salt problem is corrected by? 14. What information does a foliar analysis test give that a soil test doesn’t and visa versa? CHAPTER 9 1. What do the terms "closed" and "open" mean in reference to nutrient delivery systems in the greenhouse? 2. What are two nutrients in greenhouse effluent which cause problems for society and which have restrictions placed on them in some localities? 3 What methods exist for in-line pasteurization of the nutrient solution in closed cropping systems such as NFT? 4. Indicate which of the following cultural systems are customarily used for each of the listed crops. potted plants a. NFT fresh flowers b. rock wool slabs tomato and cucumber fruit production 0. trough culture bedding plant flats d. ebb-and-flow e. whole firm recirculation How is nutrient solution delivered to plants and handled in general in the NFT system? In what ways is rock wool used in crop production? Describe a rock wool slab system for vegetable produce production. Rock wool slabs can be used for a period of What is different about the changes that occur in the nutrient solution to be recycled within a NFT versus an ebb-and- flow system? 10. Which nutrients need to be applied in the ebb-and-flow solution and which in the NFT solution? 11. What advantage does trough culture offer over ebb-and-flow culture? 12. What is the principle behind pulse watering? P9899 CHAPTER 12 Chapter 12 not covered in class CHAPTER 13 1. What is meant by integrated pest management (1PM)? 2. Outline a program for preventing an infestation of insect related pests in your greenhouse. 3. What is biological control of pests? 4. What are three classes of living organisms that are used for biological pest control? 5. When using biological control, what is the nature of the changes that must be made in the use of pesticides and in the crop environment? Nelson, Questions, pg 5 9‘ Two places on the plant which require special attention when spraying due to the presence of insects are and 7. Insects are most often found on the side of leaves. 8. Eight methods of applying pesticides in the greenhouse are? 9. Conditions necessary for fog pesticide application are? 10. A very important granular systemic insecticide used on a wide range of greenhouse crops is? 11. The most common method for applying pesticides in the greenhouse is . 12. True or False. Spider mites build up resistance to miticides. The best way to combat them is by spraying them with a mixture of miticides before they can build up resistance to any of them. 13. True or False. Either one of the following two conditions makes it legal to use a pesticide. These are: 1) if it is registered by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) or 2) if it is well known that the pesticide is safe to handle, safe to the crop it is used on, and is effective against the pest in question. 14. True or False. A gas mask covering the entire face only needs to be used with very hazardous pesticides. 15 . What does a low LDSO tell you about a pesticide? 16. Name ten measures you as a manager will enforce in your greenhouse to insure a safe pest control program. CHAPTER 14 1. How is a virus disease generally eliminated in a greenhouse? 2. What is virus indexing and why is it used? 3. What is meant by and what is the cause of "damping-off" of seedlings? 4. How does tomato spotted wilt virus gain entry into the greenhouse? 5. How can tomato spotted wilt virus be controlled? 6. How can temperature control equipment be used to reduce the incidence of some fungal diseases? 7. One very effective material for preserving wooden flats and benches which also sterilizes them is . Two good materials for sterilzing plastic pots are and 8. Steps one can take to prevent disease in the greenhouse are? Nelson, Questions, pg 6 ...
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Part3Questions2 - Indicate whether a box or a trombone coil...

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