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CogNeuro Study Guide 2 - PSYC 3122: Cognitive Neuroscience...

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PSYC 3122: Cognitive Neuroscience Study Guide 2ShomsteinGrade in Class: A-Executive FunctionExecutive Function – controls and manages other cognitive processes-1) Those that involve planning or decision making (short or long term)-2) Those that involve error correction or troubleshooting (relying on past experience)-3) Situations where responses are not well-learned or contain novel sequences of actions (being flexible and adaptive)oWhen in situations we haven’t been in before, we rely on executive function to orient ourselves to the situation-4) Dangerous or technically difficult situations-5) Situations which require the overcoming of a strong habitual response or resisting temptation (self-monitoring)-Involved in processes such as planning, cognitive flexibility, abstract thinking, rule acquisition, and inhibiting inappropriate actions and irrelevant sensory informationoDynamic coordination of cognitive resourcesExecutive Function Studies-Present hypothetical financial problem for family of 4; ask participants to explain how the family can best meet financial goals with it’s resourcesoControl group = normal response, e.g. spend less on groceries, entertainment, etc.oExecutive function problem group (Frontal lobe damage) said to cut out the apartment (leaving the family homeless); pitch a tent somewhere elseoConclusion: EF Problem groups didn’t have illogical decisions, just not very doable-Inability to prepare a meal correctly can’t remember ingredients or did things out of order1
-Go shopping and purchase everything typed outon a list for themoWhen something not on the shelf, theyfreaked outNo flexibility/adaptiveness withoutEF-The Ultimatum Game – most people with intactbrains accept fair offers and reject unfair onesoDamage in the ventromedial prefrontalcortex: reject fair offers (unless it’s 50/50)oGoal: good financial decisionsoWith transcranial magnetic stimulation(TMS) to the right dorsolateral prefrontalcortex in health people: participantsaccepted more unfair offersExecutive Function Damage: Lateral Prefrontal andMemory-Has extremely important role in working memory;NOT associative memoryoWorking memory = blackboard of themind-Study – monkey watches experimenter place foodin one of the two food wells. Then a screen goesup, so the monkey has to memorize which one hasthe food, then the screen goes down again and hehas to choose which one has foodoThen second study: Food was always under a plus sign (not the circle) so the monkey learned to associate food with the plus (instead of watching the experimenter place the food)oMonkey’s with damage to prefrontal cortex did well on the second task (associative memory test) but not well on the working memory taskThey would often just pick the left every time, until finally switchingBabies do similarly to this prefrontal cortex takes the longest to develop-Study: Wisconsin Card Sorting TaskoParticipants given a deck of cards that can have different shapes, colors, etc. on

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Term
Spring
Professor
Shomstein
Tags
temporal lobe, receptive field

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