chapter10.key - Chapter 10 Some Vocabulary Thermodynamics...

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Chapter 10 Thermal Physics, Temperature and Heat 1 Some Vocabulary Thermodynamics: Study of energy transfers (engines) Changes of state (solid, liquid, gas. ..) Heat: Transfer of microscopic thermal energy Thermal Equilibrium: Condition after two objects are in thermal contact and finish exchanging heat. 2 Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics If A is in thermal equilibrium with B and B is in thermal equilibrium with C, A is in thermal equilibrium with C. allows definition of temperature objects at thermal equilibrium have same T Heat moves from high T to low T objects 3 Thermometers Exploit temperature sensitivity of volume or length pressure electric resistance color average particle speeds 4 Temperature Scales Celsius: Water freezes at 0 ° C, boils at 100 ° C Farenheit: Water freezes at 32 ° F, boils at 212 ° F T (in ° F) = 32 + 9 5 T (in ° C) T (in ° C) = 5 9 T (in ° F) ! 32 [ ] 5 Absolute Temperature Kelvin Scale: Lowest possible energy at T=0 ° K Energy minimized at T=0 Ideal gas law only makes sense for absolute scale T (in ° C) = T (in ° K) ! 273.15 6
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Lowest laboratory T ~ 10 -7 ° K At RHIC, T ~ 10 13 ° K In big bang, T ~ 10 40 ° K or more Some Temperatures 7 ! L L 0 = " ! T Thermal Expansion At high T increased molecular vibration pushes molecules further apart
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chapter10.key - Chapter 10 Some Vocabulary Thermodynamics...

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