Exam 2 Study Guide Sleep & Dreaming Freud o Unconscious thought: a reservoir of unacceptable wishes, feelings, and thoughts that are beyond consciousness awareness Cartwright Hobson & McCarley o Low level of consciousness Biorhythms o Periodic physiological fluctuations in the body that can influence behavior Sleep o A natural state of rest for the body and mind that involves the reversible loss of consciousness Resetting the biological clock o Ex: jetlag and way to get back on regular schedule is to stay in the daylight as much as possible to increase wakefulness EEG o Measures brain waves Sleep cycles o Awake: beta waves (lo v, hi f) o Drowsy: Alpha waves o Stage 1: theta waves, heart rate slows down, fantastic images o Stage 2: sleep spindles, mixed waves, whisper of your name can wake you up o Stage 3&4: delta waves, deep sleep (hi v, lo f) o REM: most dreaming (lo v, hi f) Three functions of sleep o Protective: evolutionary o Restorative: biological o Growth: biological Sleep disorders o Insomnia: trouble sleeping or staying asleep o Narcolepsy: falling asleep at random times, approx. 5 min o Sleep Apnea: stop breathing while asleep o REM behavior disorder: acting out while you’re asleep Features of dreams o Story like o Day residue: hear a phrase or see something that happened that day o Themes: romantic thriller, adventure, or horror Three theories of dreaming o Wish Fulfillment (Freud): sexual wish fulfillment in particular Manifest Content: conscious, what dream appears to be like on the surface Latent Content: unconscious, what dream is about under the surface o Information Processing (Cartwright): during REM sleep, brain consolidates (sifts, sorts, organizes, and better sorts) new info and memories o Activation Synthesis (Hobson & McCarley): When you dream, there is a random firing or neurons and the higher brain has to try to interpret that into a coherent story
Evidence that wish fulfillment can (and sometimes does happen) but not, by any means all the time o Nigthmares: No physical or psychological deficits comparing nightmare victims to non-victims Learning Bandura o Observational learning o Bobo doll study Skinner o Operant conditioning o Rats lab Pavlov o Classical conditioning o Dog experiment Classical conditioning o Learning by trigger association Conditioned Stimuli (CS) o Learned, evokes to CR Unconditioned Stimuli (UCS) o Naturally evokes UCR o Stimulus you respond to from birth Conditioned Response (CR) o Response to CS Unconditioned Response (UCR) o Natural response to UCS Embedded marketing o When advertisers cunningly apply classical conditioning principles, product placement Generalization o CR “spreads” to similar stimuli Discrimination o CR is restricted to specific stimuli Acquisition o Form a new CR Extinction o Banish a CR Spontaneous Recovery o CR appears after extinction and non-exposure
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