NTR - test 2 study guide - Chapter 4 1 Identify the basic...

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Chapter 41. Identify the basic chemical composition of the different categories of fats and lipids and provide examples of sources in each category fatty acids- chains of carbons bonded together; one end has carboxyl group (COOH) which allows them to mix a bit with water (hydrophilic) and the other end has the methyl group (CH3) and is hydrophobicsaturated – solid at room temperature; found in dairy, meat, plants, and tropical oils; increases blood cholesterol; straight; coconut, bacon, butter, eggs, cheeseunsaturated – double bondsmonounsaturated – one double bond; plants, canola and olive oils; bent at 1 anglepolyunsaturated – more than one double bond – liquid at room temp; vegetableoils, fish oils; lowers blood cholesterol; bent at many angles; salmon, nuts,seeds, avocadosomega-3 – compose cell membranes and help prevent tissue inflammation, heart diseaseand blood clots; found in soybean and canola oils, walnuts, and flaxseeds; EPA and DHA are two types of omega-3s; lower risk of coronary heart dz, decreases inflammation, lowers blood pressure and risk of clotting, lowers blood triglyceride levels ; salmon- double bond is on 3rdcarbon from the methyl endomega-6 – compose cell membranes and are precursors to powerful biologicalcompounds that play a role in reproduction and bloodflow; liquid vegetableoils like soybean, corn, and safflower; most Americans get plenty of this in diet- double bond is on 6thcarbon from methyl endtrans-fatty acids – unhealthy, produced through addition of hydrogen atoms to doublebonds of fatty acids, causes molecule to assume unnatural shape; hydrogenationmakes product into a solid and less susceptible to spoiling; most hydrogen bondsto carbon in cis arrangement, but hydrogenation will be a trans arrangement- AHA recommends 2 g trans fat a day or less; less than 1% of calories- CriscoTriglycerides– a chemical structure composed of a 3 carbon compound called glycerol in which fatty acids are bonded to each of the carbonsphospholipids – similar to triglycerides chemically = 3 carbon glycerol backbone, but the 3rdcarbon has a phosphate group; allows for emulsification (blending of fat and water); lecithin, for example, is found in mayonnaise; only 2% of the fat we consume are phospholipids; examples are meat, poultry, and eggs; also allows fat to mix with blood Sterols/cholesterol– sterols are vital to health and metabolic function; examples are testosterone,estrogen, and cortisol; we don’t need cholesterol in our diets because our liver makes it; only comes from animal sources because only livers make cholesterol

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