Week 1 - Thinking Critically with Psychological Science...

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Unformatted text preview: Thinking Critically with Psychological Science Topic 1 Dr. Natalie Gasson Psychology 123 What is Psychology? the study of mind, behaviour, and the relationship between them (Sternberg, 1988, p.6) Goals of Psychology Describe behaviour Explain behaviour Predict behaviour Change behaviour (where appropriate) Ways of Knowing Information 1. Tenacity 2. Intuition 3. Authority 4. Rationalism (Deductive Reasoning) All lecturers love talking to students. Natalie is a lecturer. Therefore: Natalie loves talking to students. All 4 year-old children will develop a fear of the dark. Lisa is 4 years old. Therefore: Lisa will develop a fear of the dark. 5. Empiricism Knowledge is acquired through experience. Seeing is believing. 6. Scientific Method Critical Thinking thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions. Rather, it examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions. (Myers, 2004, p. 23) Critical thinking is an active process It is systematic Evaluates and examines information Makes decisions based on sound reasoning and valid evidence (Levy, 1997) Critical Thinkers Are Open-minded Able to identify inherent biases and assumptions Sceptical Able to separate fact from opinion Not likely to oversimplify Able to review all available evidence before drawing a conclusion (Smith, 1995) www.criticalthinking.org/ncect.html Draft statement of principals of critical thinking by the National Council for Excellence in Critical Thinking Limitations of Intuition & Commonsense Hindsight Bias Life is lived forwards, but understood backwards. (Kierkegaard 1813-1855) Tendency to exaggerate ones ability to have foreseen an event after it has occurred I-knew-it-all-along phenomenon Intuition Immediate insight without reasoning People regularly equate psychology with intuition and commonsense Overconfidence Tendency to overestimate accuracy of our current knowledge Russo & Schoemaker (1989) have identified...
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Week 1 - Thinking Critically with Psychological Science...

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