Week 5 - Developmental Psychology II: Adolescence through...

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Developmental Psychology II: Adolescence through Adulthood Topic 6 Assoc. Prof. Jan Piek Psychology 123
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Social Development Attachment An emotional tie with another person; shown in  young children by their seeking closeness to the  caregiver and showing distress on separation. (Myers, 2004, p. 150) Theory of Infant Attachment Developed by John Bowlby Influenced both by psychodynamic theories  and by ethological research
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Proposed that children have an innate need for a  caregiver: they become distressed in the caregiver's  absence and comforted upon the caregiver's return, and  they are more active and exploratory when the caregiver  is present than when he or she is not Children's need for a comforting, secure adult figure was  evolutionarily advantageous since it helped prevent the  child from entering into dangerous situations
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Strange Situation Procedure Developed by Mary Ainsworth In this test, the infant is brought into a room with  toys Infant's mother and a stranger enter and exit the  room in a pre-specified sequence
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Infant's behaviour upon the parent's return is the  basis for classifying the infant into one of three   attachment categories:
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Secure attachment Most infants in the sample had a secure  attachment to their mothers. These infants  expressed unhappiness when their mothers  left but still played with the stranger. When  their mothers returned, the infants looked  happy. The infants displayed greater  attachment to their mothers than to the  stranger.
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Resistant attachment Some infants showed a type of  insecure  attachment  called a resistant attachment.  These infants became upset when their  mothers left but resisted contact with their  mothers when they returned. 
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Avoidant attachment Other infants showed a type of  insecure  attachment  called an avoidant attachment.  These infants didn’t seem upset when their  mothers left and avoided their mothers  when they returned. Researchers did not  see a significant difference in the way these  infants treated their mothers and the  stranger.
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Secure attachment appears to be a good  predictor of later personality measurements such  as self-esteem, confidence, positive social  relations, etc. Cultural differences in attachment exist Grossmann et al. (1981) found that German  children to be more avoidant infants Takahashi (1986) found that Japanese children  tended to be more resistant infants
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Some groups that may suffer from disruption to  the attachment process include: Orphaned children Adopted children Children in day-care (Myers, 2004, pp. 154-156)
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This note was uploaded on 07/29/2008 for the course PSY 123 taught by Professor Various during the Three '04 term at Curtin.

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Week 5 - Developmental Psychology II: Adolescence through...

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