NPB101-F-Sp07-Clean

NPB101-F-Sp07-Clean - See coversheet for scantron and...

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Unformatted text preview: See coversheet for scantron and examination instructions NPB101 Final SpO? Multiple Choice identity the fetter of the choice that best comptetes the statement or answers the question. Note: The order of True-False may be reversed, 17.6. a. false, b. true ‘i . What central nervous system region is responsible for regulating breathing and heart rate? a. The brainstem b The spinal cord C. The basal ganglia d. The cerebrai cortex e The cerebellum ADH (Anti—diuretic Hormone or Vasopressin) Statement #1: secretion increases with increases in blood volume, or in plasma osmolality, or both. Statement #2: stimulates the insertion of water channels in the distal tubuie and collecting ducts leading to an increase in water reabsorption into the medullary lnterstitium of the kidney. Statement #3: increases blood flow through the vase recta capillary system. Only Statement #2 is true. All three Statements are true. Only Statements #1 and #2 are true. Only Statements #2 and #3 are true. All three Statements are false. sense Preventing blood flow through the hypothalamic hypophyseal portal system in the pituitary stalk wilt directly affect hormone secretions from both the anterior and posterior pituitary glands. a. True b. FaBe What is the strongest stimulator of secretin secretion? Cholesterol in the stomach Bicarbonate in the pancreas Fat in the iieium Acid in the esophagus Low pH in the duodenum manna ID: B 5. Pick the TRUE statement about the autonomic nervous system. a. Input from postganglionic neLzrons is always excitatory b. Preganglionic parasympathetic neurons are very short c. It is made up of the smpathetic and enteric neurons d. It reguiates visceral functions _ 6. Which of the following will lead to the differentiation of the indifferent gonads into ovanes? Statement #1: Only if the fetus is genetically female (the absence of a Y chromosome). Statement #2: The fetus is genetically female (XX) or genetically male (XY) with a non—functioning SRY region on the Y chromosome. a. Statement #1. b. Statement #2. 7. in the absence of iodine in the diet you would expect to see a. no change in either Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Refeasing Hormone or Thyroid Stimulating Hormone. b. only an increase in Thyroid Stimulating Hormone. c. only an increase in Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Releasing Hormone d. an increase in both Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Releasing Hormone and Thyroid Stimulating Hormone 8. Regarding regulation of plasma calcium... Statement #1: Active Vitamin D incorporates calcium transport proteins in both the nephrons of the kidney and in the intestine. Statement #2: Both Active Vitamin D and Parathyroid Hormone stimulate osteocytes to increase the synthesis of osteoprotegrin ligand (OPGL) which then stimulates bone dismantling by the osteoblasts. a. Only the second Statement is true. b. Only the first Statement is true. ! 0. Both Statements are false. d. Both Statements are true. 9. Conditions: An individual is geneticaily male (XY). This individual has testes and the capacity to synthesize testosterone, but lacks receptors for testosterone and the abiiity to convert testosterone to dihydrotestosterone. The testes do synthesize and secrete Anit-Mullarian Hormone. This person will be born with female external genitalia. a. True b. False ID: B Statement #1: in both skeletal and cardiac muscle, increases in muscle fiber length increase calcium release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum increasing sarcoplasmic calcium. Statement #2: in cardiac muscle increases in sarcoplasmic calcium increase the number of the actim-myosin cross-bridges mobilized for the contraction. a. Oniy Statement #1 is true b. Both Statements are false 0. Both Statements are true d. Only Statement #2 is true initial conditions; The airways are open to the outside air and air can flow either into or out of the lung. The elastic recoil/surface tension forces of the normai lung are 3. The pleural pressme is +3. As a consequence of these initial conditions, you wilt observe a. Expiration b. Inspiration c. No change in iung volume Which of the following is NOT secreted by the pancreas? a. Bicarbonate b. Chymotrypsinogen c. Enterokinase cl. Insulin e. Trypsingoen Regarding the ovarian and uterine cycle... Statement #1: From about day 3 or 4 to the prevoulatory surge in LH (Luteinizing Hormone) secretion, estrogen secretion increases awhile FSH secretion decreases because estrogen increases the responsiveness of the ovarian follicles to FSH. Statement #2: The preovuiatory surge in LH occurs because the preovuiatory high estrogen ievels increase the responsiveness of the LH gonadotrophs to Gonadotropic Releasing Hormone (GnRh). Statement #3: Preovulatory estrogen stimulates the growth of uterine lining (proliferation of cells in the uterus). a. Only Statement #1 is true. b. All three Statements are false. 0. Only Statements #1 and #2 are true. d. All three Statements are true. e. Oniy Statements #1 and #3 are true. L») ID: B 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. . Which hormone or hormones wilt stimulate gluconeogenesis and increase blood glucose tevels'? a. Only insulin b. Onty glucagon c. Onty cortisot d. Both insulin and cortisol 9. Both glucagon and cortisol The motor homunculus has large representation for the hands. This implies that a. A lot of the motor cortex is devoted to control of hand muscles. b. The hands exert more force (per weight) than other body regions c. The hands have more neurons that other regions. d. We do a lot of sensory processing for hand stimuli Which of the following Statements is true regarding the transport of gases in the blood? Statement #1: For a species of gas, the partial pressure of the gas in the biood is proportional to the quantity of gas dissolved, i.e. it there is twice the quantity of the gas species dissolved, the partial pressure for that gas will double. Statement #2: There is more carbon dioxide than oxygen dissolved in the systemic arterial blood but the partial pressure of the carbon dioxide is less than that for oxygen. a. Only the second Statement is true. b. Both Statements are false. 0. Only the first Statement is true. d. Both Statements are true. An increase in sympathetic stimulation to m the SA and AV nodes wilt shorten m the P—P interval and the RR interval of the electrocardiogram. a. False b. True During a swallow, what region is closed off to prevent food entry into the respiratory passageways? a. The upper esophageai sphincter b The soft palate/uvuia c. The bronchioles d. The lips e the diaphragm Pick the CORRECT statement a. Enterocytes migrate from the crypt of Lieberkuhn to villi tips i b. Stow waves are action potentials c. The muscuiaris externa is multiunit smooth muscie d. Peptide YY is the primary stimulator of secretin secretion ID: B 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. Statement #1: The active form of thyroxine is T4. Statement #2: Assuming adequate diet and the presence of any other required hormones, the active form of thyroxine (1) increases the rate of turnover of both carbohydrates and lipids, (2) increases both carbohydrate and lipid stores, and (3) increases biood gtucose and blood free fatty acids. a. Both Statements are false. b. Both Statements are true. 0. Only the second Statement is true. d. Only the first Statement is true. A capillary bed is permeable to water. Which of the following conditions wilt decrease filtration of water across the capillary bed? a. An increase in btood pressure within the capillary bed. b. A decrease in the oncotic (osmotic) pressure of the blood within the capillary bed. c. An increase in interstitial fluid pressure. d. More than one of the above. e. None of the above. Statement #1: Compared to preepuberty, at puberty the secretion of Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone (GnRh) increases becoming pulsatile throughout the day in males and cyclical in females. Statement #2: Compared to prepuberty, at puberty there is greater negative feedback control by estrogen on Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone, Follicle Stimutating Hormone and Luteinizing Hormone. Statement #3: At the onset of puberty. axiat hair growth occurs in response to increases in adrenal sex steroids. a. Onty Statements #1 and #2 are true. b Only Statement #1 is true. c. Ali three Statements are true. (i. Only Statements #1 and #3 are true. e All three Statements are false. During Phase 1, the initial rapid repolarization, of the Purkinje fiber action potential there is outward but no inward current flow. a. False b. True Which type of chemical bonds does pancreatic amylase target? alpha—1,6 giycosidic linkages beta-1,4 glycosidic linkages alpha-1,2 glycosidtc linkages alphawt ,4 gtycosidic iinkages 9.05793 5 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. Suppose a gene mutation results in a mouse that lacks slow wave activity. What could this mutation affect? a. The kit receptor of interstitial cells of Cajal b. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors 0. Voltage—gated sodium channels d. The sine-atrial node Sensory receptors... a. Transduce action potentials into contraction b. Only respond to stimuli that we consciously perceive o. Are always neurons d. Can sometimes hyperpolarize in response to stimului You eat a normal, small meal. With digestion and absorbtion of these nutrients, you would expect a. an increase in both insulin and somatostatin secretiOn b. a decrease in insulin secretion but an increase in glucagon secretion. c. an increase in both insulin and glucagon secretion d. an increase in insulin secretion Statement #1: The synthesis of tyrosine containing thyroglobulin occurs in the lumen (within the colloid) of the thyroid follicle. Statement #2: iodine is actively transported from the blood into the follicle cell and stored in the lumen (colloid) of the thyroid follicle. Statement #3: T4 (tetraiodothyronine) is synthesized by the iodination of T3 (triiodothyronine) in the lumen (colloid) of the thyroid follicle. Ail three Statements are false. Only Statement #2 is true. Only Statements #2 and #3 are true. All three Statements are true. Only Statements #1 and #2 are true. Foe-nee Following their absorption, how are nutrients handled by small intestinal enterocytes? a. Amino acids are packaged into chylomicrons b. Amino acids are resynthesized into long polypeptides c. Monosaccharides are stored in the enterocyte d. Free fatty acids and 2—monoglycerides are resynthesized into triglycerides Pick the FALSE statement about muscle contraction. a. A load is moved by the muscle during isometric contraction. b. Skeletal muscies can exert maximal force when at their optimal fiber length 0. Skeletai muscle is the only voluntarily controlled muscle in the body CI. The Golgi tendon organ allows detection of force generation. - 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. II): B If you were to compare the choices listed below, which of the following empties from the stomach the slowest? a. A solution of pH:8.0 b. 100 calories wodh of butter 0. Water d. Bezoars e. 100 calories worth of turkey breast Regarding the secretion, actions and regulation of Growth Hormone (GH)... Statement #1: GH directly stimulates lipolysis in adipose tissue and decreases the uptake of free fatty acids into adipose tissue, and it directly stimulates amino acid uptake into skeletal muscle increasing skeletai muscle protein. Statement #2: Somatomedins, synthesized by the liver in response to GH, stimulate bone growth, cell division and organ function. Statement #3: Negative feedback control, in part, involves (1) GH directly inhibiting the release of Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone (GHRH) from the hypothalamus, and (2) Somatomedins acting on the anterior pituitary to inhibit GH secretion, and on the hypothalamus inhibiting the secretion of GHRi—l. a. All three Statements are true. b Only Statements #1 and #2 are true. 0. All three Statements are false. d. Only Statement #1 is true. e Only Statement #2 is true. Condition: There is an increase in sympathetic activity to the arterioles in skeletal muscle and a simultaneous increase in skeletal muscle metabolism. What would you expect to observe in the blood flow into the skeletal muscle? a. An increase in skeletal muscle blood flow. b. There is insufficient information given to determine in skeletal muscle blood flow will increase, decrease or remain unchanged. 0. A decrease in skeletal muscle btood flow. There is a fall in plasma calcium levels. Plasma calcium levels can be returned to normal a. by active Vitamin D without Parathyroid Hormone. b. by the actions of both Parathyroid Hormone and active Vitamin D. c. by Parathyroid Hormone without any Active Vitamin D. Which ceil is responsible for myelination of central neurons? a. Oligodendrocytes b Schwann cells c. Astrocytes d. Microglia e Ependymal cells 36. 37. 38) Condition: There is an increasein arterial blood pressure. Which of the following will decrease the arterial pressure? Statement #1: A decrease in the steady state arterial volume. Statement #2: A decrease in heart rate Statement #3: An increase in resistance in the arterioles. All three Statements are true. All three Statements are false. Only Statements #1 and #3 are true. Onty Statements #1 and #2 are true. Only the Statement #1 is true. sense Conditions: In the kidney, there is an increase in efferent arteriolar resistance. Afferent arteriolar resistance does not Change. There is no change the the systemic arterial blood pressure. As a consequence of this resistance change, you will observe Statement #1: an increase in giomerular filtration rate. Statement #2: an increase in the protein oncotic (osmotic) pressure in the peritubular capillaries. Statement #3: an increase in solvent drag from the lumen of the proximal tubule into the peritubular capillaries. Alt three Statements are true. Only Statement #1 is true. Only Statements #1 and #3 are true. All three Statements are false. Only Statements #1 and #2 are true. sheep's Cerebrospinal fluid... a. Ftows around the spinal cord in the subarachnoid space b. Surrounds peripheral nerves 0. is made by oligodendrocytes d. Has the same exact composition as plasma 8 40. 41. 42. 43. ID: B . You’re recording the electrical change in a sensory receptor. In response to an extended stimulus, you observe that the receptor depolarizes, then quickly stops responding. When the stimulus ends, the receptor responds with a small depolarization that decays quickly. You would classify this response as Habituation Temporal summation Long term potentiation Slow adaptation Rapid adaptation eases Bile secretions... a. Stabilize small fat droplets in an aqueous solution b. is primarily free fatty acids c. Contain red blood cells (1. Digest fat droplets Your patient presents severe diarrhea and intestinal gas when given a milk meal. However, he is perfectly normal when consuming steak or bread. You conclude that he has a deficiency in Pancreatic function His ileal brake reflex Lactase expression SGLT-1 expression Acid production patient presents deafness. Which sensory organ might not be working in yoor patient? The Organ of Corti The retina The otoiith organs The Pacinian corpuscle The vestibular system eeeee> eeeee Statement #1: In males after puberty, the primary source of testosterone is the testes, and the primary source of estrogen is the adrenal cortex. Statement #2: In females after puberty, the primary source of both estrogen and testosterone is the ovarian follicles. Only the second Statement is true. Both Statements are false. Both Statements are true. Only the first Statement is true. 9-9979” 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. The elastic recoil/surface tension forces of the lung are equal in magnitude and opposite in direction to the transmural pressure for the lung at the end of expiration or the end of inspiration. a. False b. True With repoiarization during a cardiac action potential a. both inward and outward current fiow can exist, but there must be a net increase in outward current flow. b. can Qply occur if there is outward current flow and no inward current flow. c. both inward and outward current flow can exist, but there must be a net increase in inward current flow. d. can only occur is there is inward current flow and no outward current flow. A toxin significantly reduces gastrointestinal acid production. What would be the most likely target of this toxin? a. Secretin producing cells of the small intestine b. Mucous cells 0. Smooth muscle cells d. Parietal cells Statement #1: Suckling at the breast stimulates the release of oxytocin from the posterior pituitary, and prolactin from the anterior pituitary. Statement #2: Oxytocin stimulates milk ejection, and prolactin stimulates milk secretion. a. Only the second Statement is true. b. Both Statements are false. 0. Only the first Statement is true. d. Both Statements are true. Pick the TRUE statement about neuronal action potentials a. The Na+/K+ ATPase is primarily responsibte for repolarization b. Depolarization increases the cell’s permeability to Na+ c. K+ channel inactivation is responsible for refractoriness d. K+ influx causes the falling phase Statement #1: The Leydig cells in the testes synthesize and secrete testosterone when stimulated by LH (Luteinizing Hormone). Statement #2: Spermatogenesis requires (1) FSH (Follicle Stimulating Hormone), [2) the synthesis of Androgen Binding Protein by the Sertoli cells, (3) the presence of high concentrations of testosterone, and (4) the presence of low levels of estrogen. Both Statements are false. Only the first Statement is true. Only the second Statement is true. Both Statements are true. sleet» IO Insulin Statement #1: is required for the uptake of glucose into skeletal muscle cells, liver cells and nerve cells. Statement #2: stimulates glycogen synthesis in muscte and liver. Statement #3: stimulates the synthesis of glycerol and triglycerides in adipocytes. Ail three Statements are true. All three Statements are false. Onty Statements #1 and #2 are true. Only Statements #2 and #3 are true. Only Statement #2 is true. $95-19???” 51. Statement #1: In the first trimester of pregnancy, human chorionic gonadotropin maintains the ability of the corpus luteum to synthesize and secrete both estrogen and progesterone. Statement #2: In the second and third trimesters of pregnancy, progesterone is synthesized by the placenta from cholesterol in the mother’s blood, and estrogen is ! synthesized by the placenta using fetal adrenal DHEA (dehydroepiandrosterone). - a. Both Statements are false. b. Both Statements are true. c. Only the second Statement is true. d. Only the first Statement is true. 52. Gap junctions... are sites through which endocrine cells reiease hormone contain acid producing cells in the stomach allow excitation to spread between cardiac myoctyes are inserted into the collecting duct in response to aldosterone are vascular pores between endothelial cells sense 53. Condition: Circulating blood votume decreases as a consequence of hemorrhage. You would expect to observe activation of the renin—angiotensin-aldosterone system leading to an increase in both Na and water reabsorption by nephrons in the kidney. a. False b. True 54. In skeletal muscle, the major regulatory unit that blocks the myosin binding site on the thin filament is a. Calmodulin b Troponin 0. Calcium d. Tropomyosin e Actin ll II): B 56. 57. 58. 59. 60. . Compare expiration to inspiration in the absence of FRC (Functional Residual Capacity). During expiration the partial pressure of oxygen in the blood leaving the lung will decrease, while the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the blood leaving the lung will not change. a. False b. True Which of the following is TRUE regarding a cell at rest? a. [Na]O << [Na]; b. PNa+ << PK+ C. [KHO >> [K+]-| d VM = EK+ e VM 2 0 my Which of the following cannot be easily absorbed by small intestinal enterocytes from the lumen? 3- Maltotriose Sodium ions Dipeptides Giucose monomers Free fatty acids seas" Which of the following will increase stroke volume? Statement M: An increase in venous capacitance. Statement #2: An increase in cardiac contractility. 3- Onty the second Statement is true. 0- Both Statements are true c. Only the first Statement is true. d. Both Statements are false Which of the following must occur for a neuron to communicate with skeletal muscle? 3- Neurotransmitter release into the synapse b Ca2+ influx at the neuronal terminal 0. Neurontransmitter binding to the postsynaptic receptor d. Two of the above are CORRECT e All of the above are CORRECT You wish to teach your roommate about homeostasis. One of the things you tell her is a. We homeostatically regulate the environment outside the body b. A regulated variable (eg. MAP) can change hourly, but is normally maintained within a narrow range 0. Every organ system is involved in homeostasis d. Homeostatic loops can be voluntarily controlied ...
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This note was uploaded on 07/27/2008 for the course NPB 101 taught by Professor Fuller,charles/goldberg,jack during the Spring '08 term at UC Davis.

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NPB101-F-Sp07-Clean - See coversheet for scantron and...

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