MTMarathon1

MTMarathon1 - Midterm 2 - NPB 101 Guidelines: (1) Write...

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Unformatted text preview: Midterm 2 - NPB 101 Guidelines: (1) Write your name and provide your student ID# on the front of your scantron. *$****************1:*****************$***$*****flhifrl:*4:***=l=*$*********************$***$***$* . L31 509.053.!” (2) Sign your scantron. , (3) Indicate on the from of your scantron that you are using iI‘estform (4) If you finish early, remain in your seat until the end of the exam. At 4:55 the Instructor, TA and Proctors will collect all scantrons. Which ofthe following is not a method of radation of skeletal muscle contraction? 3- twitch (or temporal) summation % b. motor unit recruitment C. stimulating variable portions of each motor unit d. varying the number of motor units stimulated a varying the frequency at which a motor unit is stimulated The-motor unit refers to a single motor neuron and all of the muscle cells it innervates refers to a single muscle cell and ail ofthe sarcomeres within that muscle cell refers to a single muscle cell and all of the motor neurons that innervate it refers to all of the cross-bridge activity that takes place in a single muscle cell refers to the total amount of Ca++ that can be stored by a single muscle cell According to the sliding-filament mechanism of muscle contraction, the a— 1 bands slide into the H zorie. b- A band becOmes shorter. C. H zone becomes shorter. d. thick filaments form cross bridges with the t~tubles. 9, thin filaments slide into the lateral sacs of the sarcoplasmic reticulum. The regulation of smooth mu5cle contraction is mediated by the phosphorylation of . in response to calcium binding to myosin, calmodulin. actin, calmodulin. troponin, calmodulin. myosin, troponin. actin, troponin. 509.053.!” Actin has ATPase activity. shortens as the sarcomere c0ntracts forms a helical chain that forms the main structural component of the thin filaments. Two of these answers. All ofthese answers. 0.0-9.5?” 6. A function of tropomyosin is a. bind Ca2+. b. form attachments wnn myosin cross bridges. c_ prevent myosin cross bridges from attaching to the thin filaments. d. serve as an ATPase. 8. None ofthese answers. 7. The sarcoplasmic reticulum stores when a muscle is relaxed and releases it for binding to during contraction. . calcium, troponin . calcium, tropomyosin sodium, tropomyosin potassium, tropomyosin sodium, troponin contra: 8. The sinoatrial node is the heart's normal pacemaker because . it has the fastest natural rate of autorhythmicity. it has both sympathetic and parasympathetic innervation. blood enters the right atrium. K+ channels close more slowly in this region than elsewhere in the heart. None of these answers. EDP-PETE” 9. The volume of blood ejected from each ventricle during a contraction is called the and it is equal to the . end-diastolic volume, heart rate x stroke volume end-systolic volume, heart rate x stroke volume stroke volume, end diastolic volume — end systolic volume stroke volume, end systolic volume 7 end diastolic volume pulse pressure, end systolic pressure — end diastolic pressure 59.9-57.5.” 10. The nerves to the heart alter cardiac output by increasing heart rate and increasing contractility. 8- motor. . sensory. sympathetic. . parasympathetic. ' None of these answers. reaper l 1. The pulmpnaw vein 3- ffiléfi’bxygéifiich blood to the right atrium. b. carries oxygen rich blood to the left atrium. c. carries oxygen poor blood to the felt atrium. d, carries oxygen poor blood to the right atrium. 12. The aortic valve 8- prevents the backflow of blood into the aorta during ventricular diastole. b. prevents the backflow of blood into the left ventricle during ventricular diastole. C. prevents the backflow of blood into the right ventricle during ventricular diastole. d, prevents the backflow of blood into the left ventricle during ventricular systole a closes when the first heart sound is heard. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. Upon listening to the heart sounds of a patient, you hear the recurring pattern: lub-dup—whistle. The most likely cause of this heart sound is _ a. a stenototic venous valve. b. an insufficient sumilunar valve. c. an insufficient AV valve. d. a stenotic AV valve. e. a stenotic sumilunar valve. Resistance increases when _ a. radius decreases. b. length decreases. c. viscosity decreases. d. hematocrit decreases. e. None of these an5wers. The depolarization that occurs during the pacemaker potential of a cardiac paCemaker cell is due to a. I) a decrease in K+ permeability, 2) a constant Na” permeability, and 3) the opening of T- type Ca++ channels. in. I)an increase in K+ permeability, 2) a constant Na-- permeability, and 3) the opening of T— type Ca++ channels. 0- 1) a decrease in K+ permeability, 2) a constant Na+ permeability, and 3) the opening of L- type Ca++ channels. d. 1) a decrease in K+ permeability, 2) a decrease in Na+ permeability, and 3) the opening of T-type Ca++ channels. 6. l) a decrease in K+ permeability, 2)'an increase in Na+ permeability, and 3) the opening of voltage gated Na+ channels. Which two pressures act to move fluid into the capillary? a. interstitial-fluid hydrostatic pressure and capillary blood pressure. r“ b. blood-colloid osmotic pressure and interstitial-fluid~colloid osmotic pressure. c. interstitial-fluid hydrostatic pressure and blood-colloid osmotic pressure. d. interstitial-fluid hydrostatic pressure and interstitial-fluid-colloid osmotic pressure. e. capillary blood pressure and interstitialfluid-colloid osmotic pressure. The larger arteries assist with systemic blood flow to tissues by: 3. contracting their tunica intima. l1 beating their semilunar—type valves. 0- by associating with large veins. {1- elastic recoil oftheir walls. ~ 9- continuous vasoconstriction. During the T—wave of the electrocardiogram (ECG), . the ventricles are repolarizin g and diastole begins 13. the ventricles are repolarizing and systole begins c. the atria are depolarizing diastole begins d. e. a the ventricles are depolarizing and systole begins the atria are repolarizing and systole begins 19. Which of the following is not a characteristic of capillaries? 3- thin walls. ' l1 short distance between adjacent vessels. 0- distensible walls. (1- slow blood velocity. 6. large total surface area. 20. Which is reabsorbed by the proximal convoluted tubule? a. sodium. b. amino acids. c. glucose. d. All of these answers. e. None ofthesc answers. 21. Atrial natriuretic peptide 3. is secreted by the granule cells in the afferent arteriole in response to increased blood pressure. b. is secreted by specialized cells in the cardiac atria in response to increased blood pressure. c. leads to an increase in Na+rreabsorption d. Both (a) and (0) above. e. Both (b) and (c) above. 22. Which of the following stimulates aldosterone secretion? 3. an increase in plasma K+. b. a decrease in plasma If. C. activation of the renin-angiotensin pathway. d. Both (a) and (c) above. e. Both (b) and (c) above. 23. A sudden increase in pressure within the carotid sinus leads to 3. increased sympathetic nerve activity. b. increased sympathetic nerve activity and decreased parasympathetic nerve activity. 0. decreased sympathetic nerve activity and increased parasympathetic nerve activity. d. decreased sympathetic nerve activity. 6. None of these answers; 24. The glomerular capillary blood pressure in the nephron is 78 mm Hg. The Bowman's capsular hydrostatic pressure is 24 mm Hg. The colloidal osmotic pressure is 18 mm Hg. The net filtration pressure is __ mm Hg. a. 18 b. 26 c. 36 d. 42 7 i e. 78 The macula densa . consists 'of specialized tubular cells'in the juxtaglomerular apparatus. consists of specialized arteriolar smooth-muscle cells in the juxtaglomerular apparatus. secretes renin. d Both (a) and (c) above. Both (b) and (c) above. fiP—F’P‘?‘ 26. Countercurrent exchange in the loop of Henle a. is established by water leaving the descending limb of the loop and Na+ leaving the ascending limb of the loop. I b. results in the production of hypotonic urine at the top of the ascending limb of the loop. ' 0. establishes a vertical osmotic gradient across the renal medulla that can be used to aid water reabsorption as fluid passes through the collecting ducts. d. Both (a) and (c) above. 6. (a), (b), and (c) above. 27. In the proximal tubule, Na+ reabsorption a. depends on the Na+lK+ ATPase (pump) located in the tubular membrane of tubular epithelial cells. 13- depends on the Na+/K+ ATPase (pump) located in the basolateral membrane oftubular epithelial cells. c. can be increased by vasopressin. d. can be increased by atrial natriuretic peptide. e. Two of the above answers. 28. Micturition I a. is the process of emptying the bladder. 13. is a parasympathetic reflex that can be overriden by the cerebral cortex. c. involves opening both the internal and external urethral sphincters d. Both (a) and (b) above. e. (a), (b), and ((3) above. 29. Do you want your scantron left in the hallway outside the NPB Office in Briggs Hall? 3- Yes. D. No, I would prefer to pick up my scantron from the course TA. ...
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MTMarathon1 - Midterm 2 - NPB 101 Guidelines: (1) Write...

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