MTMarathon2

MTMarathon2 - NPB 101 - Midterm 2 Practice Exam Multiple...

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Unformatted text preview: NPB 101 - Midterm 2 Practice Exam Multiple Choice Identtfj’ the letter ofthe choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. 2 lines a. are formed by the T tubules. b, extend down the middle of the 1 band. c. are formed by the cross bridges. d. are the thin filaments. e. extend down the middle of the sarcomere. Which of the following characteristics are shared by all three types of muscle tissues? each one contains myosin and actin. each one is neurogenic. each one is striated. each one is considered to be under voluntary control. None of these answers. 9999‘!” A function of tropomycsin is a bind Ca2+. b. form attachments with myosin" cross bridges. CV prevent myosin cross bridges from attaching to the thin filaments. d- serve as an ATPase. 6- None of these answers. During muscle contraction, the a. actin proteins contract. b, A band becomes shorter. c. H zone becomes smaller or disappears. d. 1 band remains unchanged. e. More than one of these answers. The T tubules a. store 0a“. b. provide a means of rapidly transmitting the action potential from the surface into the central portions of the muscle fiber. _ 0. store ATP. d. have expanded lateral sacs. e. Both store Ca2+ and have expanded lateral sacs. Which of the following is not involved in the relaxation of muscle? a. when acetylcholine is destroyed by acetylcholinesterase. . when there is no longer a local action potential. when the T tubules actively take up the Ca2+ that had been released. . when the actin and myosin molecules are no longer bound together. . when the troponin—tropomy osin complex slips hack into its blocking position. b C. d e Which of the following statements concerning the characteristics of different types of muscle fibers is incorrect? , ' a. the higher the ATPase activity, the faster the speed of contraction. b. muscles that have high glycolytic capacity and large glycogen stores are more resistant to fatigue. ' muscles with high ATP-synthesizing ability are more resistant to fatigue. oxidative types of muscle fibers contain myoglobin. e. muscle fibers containing large amounts of myoglobin have a dark red color in comparison to the paler fibers, which have little myoglobin. 9-?” 8. Muscular fatigue is caused by lactic acid accumulation. 3.. b. depletion of ATP. c. depletion of ACh. d. Both (a) and (b) above. c. All these answers. 9. The AV nodal delay a. ensures that the atria contract and empty their contents into the ventricles prior to ventricular systole. ensures that the ventricles contract prior to atrial systole. ensures that tetanic contraction of cardiac muscle is impossible. is shortened by parasympathetic stimulation. More than one of the above is correct. EFF-PET 10. The fastest rate of autorhythmicity is normally carried out by the a. AV bundle. b. AV node. c. bundle of His. d. Purkinje fibers. e. SA node. 11. The end—systolic volume is the volume of blood in the ventricle when ejection is complete. a. b, the volume of blood in the ventricle when filling is complete. 3_ always equal to the stroke volume. d. the volume of blood in the ventricle when ejection is complete and always equal to the stroke volume. e. the volume of blood in the ventricle when filling is complete and always equal to the stroke volume. 12. If the cardiac output is 4,800 nil/min and the heart rate is 60 beats per minute, the stroke volume averages ml. 3.. 60 b. 70 o. 80 d. 120 e. 140 13. If the EDV were held constant, increased stroke volume could be accomplished by a. increased sympathetic nerve activity to the heart. b. increased parasympathetic nerve activity to the heart. c. decreased contractility. d. sleep. e. increased arterial blood pressure. 14. If the radius of an arteriole decreasesinom 30 microns to 15 microns a. the resistance decreases 16 times. t—‘ H— b. the resistance increases 16 times. c. Flow will be decreased. d. Both (a) and (b) above. e. Both (b) and (c) above. 15. The pressure measured in the arteries just before the next ventricular ejection of blood is systolic pressure. diastolic pressure. pulse pressure. mean pressure. None of these answers. 9519572» 16. All of the following local chemical factors will cause vasodilation of arterioles, except decreased K+. increased (30;. increased acid. decreased 02. histamine release. 99957:» 17. During exercise, there is not an increased blood flow to which of the following tissues? a. skeletal muscles. b. heart. c. skin. d. brain. e. blood flow is increased to all of these tissues during exercise. 18. The velocity of blood flow in capillaries a. is greater than that for arterioles. b. is greater than that for veins. C- is slow enough to favor adequate exchange. {1- Both (a) and (b) above. 6. Both (a) and (0) above. 19. Given the following forces acting at a given point across the capillary wall, what type of fluid movement will be taking place at that point? Ca ill blood pressure = 32 nun Hg Blood~colloid osmotigpressure = 23 mm Hg Interstitial- ujgl hydrostatic pressure = 1 mm Hg Intersti ‘ — id—colloid osmotic pressure =_Q rrnn Hg Ultrafiltration will occur With a net outward pressure of 8 mm g. —“'""" Ultrafiltration will occur with a net outward pressure of 10 mm Hg. Ultrafiltration will occur with a net outward pressure of 56 mm Hg. Reabsorption will occur with a net inward pressure of 24 mm H g. Reabsorption will occur with a net inward pressure of 10 mm H g. {PP-PETE” 20. 21. 22f 23. 24. 25. Which of the following does not occur to compensate for a fall in blood pressure below normal? a. cardiac output is increased. , ' total peripheral resistance is decreased. c. heart rate is increased. 'd. venous vasoconstriction occurs. stroke volume is increased. F” A sudden increase in pressure within the carotid sinus leads to increased sympathetic nerve activity. increased sympathetic nerve activity and decreased parasympathetic nerve activity. decreased sympathetic nerve activity and increased parasympathetic nerve activity. decreased sympathetic nerve activity. None of these answers. 994.057!» The renal process whereby substances are selectively transferred from the peritubular blood into the renal tubule is filtration. secretion. reabsorption. excretion. None of these answers. 99.0575» blood flow into the glomerulus, which causes the , leading to a(n) in the net in the GFR. Afferent arteriolar vasoconstriction glomeruIar—capillary blood pressure to filtration pressure and a resultant increases, increase, increase, increase decreases, decrease, decrease, decrease increases, increase, decrease, decrease decreases, decrease, increase, increase None of these answers. 99.0575» When arterial blood pressure is elevated above normal, which of the following compensatory changes in renal function occur as a result of the baroreceptor reflex? a. afferent arteriolar vasoconstriction b. afferent arteriolar vasodilation c. reduction in GFR d. Both (a) and (c) above. c. Both (b) and (0) above. Which of the following statements regarding tubular reabsorption is incorrect? Tubular reabsorption ' a. refers to the movement of a substance from the tubular fluid to the peritubular capillary blood. b. is important for the conservation of substances important to the body, such as NaJ', Cl', glucose, and amino acids. c. can occur by active or passive transport mechanisms. d. involves the process of transepithelial transport. 6. takes place only in the proximal tubule. E. The Na+-K+ ATPase transport system that plays a pivotal role in much of tubular reabsorption is ' located in the luminal membrane of tubular cells.’ basolateral membrane of tubular cells. podocytes. glomerular capillary membrane. basement membrane. 9999‘? Sodium reabsorption in the Wm of the nephron is stimulated by a. atrial natriuretic peptide. 11. vasopressin. c. angiotensin 11. d. aldosterone. e. renin. Which of the following is not attributable to atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP)? ANP is released from the cardiac atria when the BOP volume is reduced. ANP inhibits Na+ reabsorption in the distal parts of the nephron. ANP inhibits renin secretion by the kidneys. AN P inhibits aldosterone secretion by the adrenal cortex. ANP inhibits sympathetic nervous activity to the heart and blood vessels. 99.05329 The plasma clearance of a substance can be used to calculate the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) if that substance is freely filtered at the glomerulus and secreted and reabsorbed by the tubules. neither reabsorbed nor secreted by the tubules. secreted by the tubules. reabsorbed by the tubules. None of these answers. runners» 30. Which of the following statements concerning the loop of Henle of juxtamedullary nephrons is correct? a. the ascending limb of the loop of Henle is freely permeable to H20 and NaCl. b. the filtrate is hypotonic as it enters the loop of Henle, hypertonic at the tip of the loop, and isotonic as it leaves the loop of Henle. the descending limb of the loop of Henle is freely permeable to H20. (1. All of these answers. e. None of these answers. .0 ...
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MTMarathon2 - NPB 101 - Midterm 2 Practice Exam Multiple...

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