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Unformatted text preview: Bio II Notes Wed May 3, 12-2 koffl 203 Thurs May 4, 11- 12 here in this classroom Sun May 7, 5-7 kachina lounge, 3 rd floor of student union Notes on final: Tuesday may 9 th from 11-1 in koffl 204 Rob office hours in BSZ 420 Final will have 100 Qs, 50 of those will be on the last sections. The rest of it will be on all of the 3 sections. The best way to study for the other sections would be to go to papaj and bronsteins office hours. Some of the Qs are form the required readings (570-593, 682-700). Rob has office hours on wed. Lec I-Estimates of Biological diversity o # of known living species- 1-2 million o # living (know and unknown): 15-100 million o Diversity still greater if extinct forms are included Hows lifes diversity organized? Ancient Classification schemes:-Aristotles scala naturae (natural scale) = great chain of being o Species are fixed entities o Ranked along a continuum- in order of increasing perfection-Linnaeus: father of taxonomy- theory and practice of classifying organisms 1. Binomial nomenclature Ex: Homo sapiens Ex: Oryza sativa 2. hierarchical classification of life (groups within groups within group and so on) o kingdom phylum class order family genus species o humans: Animalia, Chordata, Mammilia, Primata, Hominidae, Homo, Homo Sapiens Early hints of evolution-George Leclerc, Count of Buffon, 1707-1788 o Wrote Natural History o His studies suggested that animals had common ancestors animals that look dif have similar bone structure-Lamarcks theory of evolution- progressivism o Species evolve to greater complexity in chain of being o Evolution involves inheritance of acquired characteristics Parents that acquire a favourable trait pass it to their organisms And progress is made across generation Use, disuse and evolution- use it or lose it o Problems w/ his thry Disproved by August Weisman Requires effects of environment on non-reproductive cells to be transmitted to reproductive cells- Charles Darwin 1809-1882 o Lifelong interest in nature o Med-school dropout o Took up theology studies at Cambridge- he was religious o 1831-1836: naturalist aboard the H.M.S. Beagle o At Galapagos, he observed: 1. species on these islands resembled species on mainland 2. species on one island differed from species in the other islands o for Darvin, the only logical explanation: 1. a species arose on the mainland 2. indvs migrated to the islands 3. species diverged on dif islands o Darzins Origin of Species Published in 1859 Species evolve Species similarities due to common descent Species dif due to natural selection o Evolution not linear, but more like a branching tree- which can explain hierarchical pattern of life o Magnitude of difs explained by history o Sim species had recent common ancestor o Dissim species had ancient common ancestor-Probs w/ chain of being 1. evolution assumed to be linear 2. lower forms stop evolving after next form arises 3.3....
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- Spring '07