Neuroanatomy - Cognitive Neuroscience Neuroanatomy: Getting...

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Unformatted text preview: Cognitive Neuroscience Neuroanatomy: Getting around the Brain Neuroanatomy "....we issue the following warning to overzealous beginning students of neuroanatomy: Select structures to learn as needed. Attempts to memorize all of the information contained in this book may be detrimental to your mental health. Indeed, learning neuroanatomy is analagous to learning a language or geography it is a slow process of building inch by inch and learning by repetition." (DeArmon, Fusco & Dewey. Structure of the Human Brain. 1989) Directional Terms Term Rostral Caudal Dorsal Ventral Medial Lateral Body Nose Tail Back Belly Brain Front, Anterior Rear, Posterior Top, Superior Bottom, Inferior Toward the Middle Toward the Side Fig. 2: Typical crosssections through the brain and spinal cord. Coronal Section Horizontal Section Sagittal Section Horizontal/axial images Coronal images Sagittal images 1. Forebrain 1A. Telencephalon 1B Diencephalon 2. 3. Midbrain mesencephalon Hindbrain 3A Metencephalon 3B Myelencephalon 1. Forebrain 1A Telencephalon Neocortex Limbic Amygdala, Hippocampus Basal Ganglia 1B Diencephalon Thalamus Hypothalamus 2. 3. Midbrain mesencephalon Superior/inferior colliculi Hindbrain 3A Metencephalon Cerebellum Pons Medulla 3B Myelencephalon Important Structures Cortex Thalamus Sensory Info cingulate gyrus Basal Ganglia Hippocampus Cerebellum Motor Learning Memory Motor Control Relays Pons Inferior / Superior Colliculi Hypothalamus Regulatory Amygdala Emotion Medulla Autonomic Limbic System 1. Forebrain 1A Telencephalon Neocortex Limbic Amygdala, Hippocampus Basal Ganglia 1B Diencephalon Thalamus Hypothalamus 2. 3. Midbrain mesencephalon Superior/inferior colliculi Hindbrain 3A Metencephalon Cerebellum Pons Medulla 3B Myelencephalon MEDULLA CONTROLS AUTONOMIC FUNCTIONS: HEART RATE BLOOD PRESSURE RESPIRATION 1. Forebrain 1A Telencephalon Neocortex Limbic Amygdala, Hippocampus Basal Ganglia 1B Diencephalon Thalamus Hypothalamus 2. 3. Midbrain mesencephalon Superior/inferior colliculi Hindbrain 3A Metencephalon Cerebellum Pons Medulla 3B Myelencephalon PONS SENSORY RELAY NERVOUS SYSTEM REGULATION RELAYS INFO FROM THE CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES TO THE CEREBELLUM 1. Forebrain 1A Telencephalon Neocortex Limbic Amygdala, Hippocampus Basal Ganglia 1B Diencephalon Thalamus Hypothalamus 2. 3. Midbrain mesencephalon Superior/inferior colliculi Hindbrain 3A Metencephalon Cerebellum Pons Medulla 3B Myelencephalon CEREBELLUM RECEIVES SENSORY, MOTOR, BALANCE INFO USES THIS TO: MAINTAIN POSTURE PLAN AND TIME MOVEMENTS 1. Forebrain 1A Telencephalon Neocortex Limbic Amygdala, Hippocampus Basal Ganglia 1B Diencephalon Thalamus Hypothalamus 2. 3. Midbrain mesencephalon Superior/inferior colliculi Hindbrain 3A Metencephalon Cerebellum Pons Medulla 3B Myelencephalon MIDBRAIN VARIOUS NUCLEI: INVOLVED IN MOVEMENT AND MUSCLE TONE SUPERIOR COLLICULUS: EYE MOVEMENTS INFERIOR COLLICULUS: AUDITORY SYSTEM RELAY 1. Forebrain 1A Telencephalon Neocortex Limbic Amygdala, Hippocampus Basal Ganglia 1B Diencephalon Thalamus Hypothalamus 2. 3. Midbrain mesencephalon Superior/inferior colliculi Hindbrain 3A Metencephalon Cerebellum Pons Medulla 3B Myelencephalon HYPOTHALAMUS REGULATION OF: EMOTION HUNGER THIRST TEMPERATURE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM, PITUITARY THALAMUS CENTRAL RELAY FOR SENSORY AND MOTOR INFORMATION TO CORTEX LATERAL GENICULATE: VISUAL INFO MEDIAL GENICULATE: AUDITORY INFO 1. Forebrain 1A Telencephalon Neocortex Limbic Amygdala, Hippocampus Basal Ganglia 1B Diencephalon Thalamus Hypothalamus 2. 3. Midbrain mesencephalon Superior/inferior colliculi Hindbrain 3A Metencephalon Cerebellum Pons Medulla 3B Myelencephalon BASAL GANGLIA MOVEMENT PUTAMEN CAUDATE NUCLEUS GLOBUS PALLIDUS LIMBIC SYSTEM MOTIVATION, EMOTION, MEMORY Cingulate gyrus (Cortex) AMYGDALA: EMOTION, FEAR HIPPOCAMPUS: MEMORY FORNIX Hypothalamus (Diencephalon) NEOCORTEX Cerebral Cortex PERCEPTION, COGNITION, HIGHER MOTOR FUNCTIONS TWO HEMISPHERES (right and left) 2.5 SQ. FEET(UNFOLDED) 1015 BILLION NEURONS 6 LAYERS, 1.54 MM THICK NEOCORTEX CORTEX (grey matter): CELL BODIES 2.5 SQ. FEET(UNFOLDED) 1015 BILLION NEURONS 6 LAYERS, 1.54 MM THICK WHITE MATTER: AXONS FIBERS CORPUS CALLOSUM NEOCORTEX GYRI, SULCI, FISSURES CENTRAL (ROLANDIC) FISSURE LATERAL (SYLVIAN) FISSURE 4 LOBES: FRONTAL TEMPORAL PARIETAL OCCIPITAL Cytoarchitectonically defined areas Brodmann areas: ...
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This note was uploaded on 07/29/2008 for the course NEUROSCIEN 70 taught by Professor Whitney during the Spring '08 term at Johns Hopkins.

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