Somatosensation - Body Image and Somatosensation Cognitive...

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Body Image and Somatosensation Cognitive Neuroscience
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Sensory Receptors Skin Muscles and joints Internal organs
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Sensory Receptors p Mechanoreceptors (the majority type) : n physical distortion (stretching/bending) p Meissners corpuscles, Pacinian corpuscles, Ruffini’s endings, Merkel’s disks p Thermoreceptors: n temperature p Nocioreceptors: n painful/damaging stimuli n free nerve endings p Proprioreceptors: n changes in body position n in muscles, tendons
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Sensory receptors: Receptive Fields p Size p Location p Response properties p Receptor density
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p Response property: Adaption Rate Detect Movement Detect Shape
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What does this reveal about receptor density and receptive field size?
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From sensory receptors to brain p Two primary, parallel pathways: n Touch and proprioception p Dorsal column­medial lemniscal pathway n Temperature and pain p Spinothalamic pathway
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Somatosensory cortex p S1: primary somatosensory cortex (areas 1, 2, 3a, 3b) p S2: secondary somatosensory cortex p Posterior parietal cortex (5,7)
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S1: Somatotopy
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S1: Cortical magnification
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S1: Multiple maps Area 1: Texture Area 2: Size, shape
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Posterior parietal cortex p Neurons with very complex response properties p Activity is modulated by attention p Multi­modal receptive fields p Large receptive fields recall: dorsal pathway’s role in “perception for action”
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Multiple body representations (1) S1­somatopic sensory representations (2) Semantic representations p declarative knowledge p “a wrist is where a watch is worn” p “the eyes are above the nose” (3) Structural descriptions p Part of the visual object recognition system that allows for the visual identification of body parts across changes in orientation and appearance (4) Body Schema (posterior parietal, S2) n Integration of: p somatosensory, p proprioceptive (info regarding tension in muscles, tendons and joints), p vestibular p visual info n to provide a constantly updated representation of body part positions and size relative to other body parts and the environment
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Body schema Evidence p Studies with neurologically intact subjects p Autotopagnosia and other disorders subsequent to neural injury p Phantom limbs Conclusions p There is a mental representation of the body and body movements p Body image is dynamic and flexible p Body image exists independently of sensory input p Vestibular information contributes to updating body image
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Autotopagnosia Autotopagnosia: p as a result of neural injury ° inability to identify body parts of self or others p a broad category, specific cases may show different deficits; not well understood Sirigu et al. (1991) 62 year old woman (Alzheimer’s disease): p Failed on: p Verbal command (“point to your eye”) p Imitation (“point to the same part on your self as I am pointing to on my self) p Despite being able to: p Name body parts pointed to (which she can see) p Define body part functions p Point to marked locations on her body (which she can see) p Authors concluded: inability to know current location of body parts
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Parsons (1994) p
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