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Class 4 student copy - Memory Living with Yesterday...

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Memory: Living with Yesterday
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Fundamental Memory Processes Encoding Organizing and transforming incoming information to be entered into memory Storage Retaining information in memory Retrieval Accessing information previously stored in memory Rehearsal The continued activation of information to retain it in short-term memory
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Different Memory Stores We have three different memory stores, or sets of neurons that maintain information. Each memory store has a different: Duration - the length of time information is maintained Capacity - the amount of information that is maintained
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Different Memory Stores Fundamental distinctions among memory stores were first characterized by Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968, 1971) and Waugh and Norman (1965). Sensory Memory Short-Term Memory Long-Term Memory Rehearsal
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Sensory Memory Very short memory store arising from the temporary activation of perceptual areas of the brain Characteristics Duration: Very short, typically less than 1 second Capacity: Large Investigation: Sperling’s partial report technique George Sperling’s classic 1960 experiments
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Sensory Memory Sperling’s partial report technique: a tone indicated which row to report after the stimuli disappeared High tone = Top Medium tone = Middle Low tone= Bottom Z R A T B S L D Q E K R
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Sensory Memory Sperling’s partial report technique Findings Full report: 4-5 items correctly recalled Partial report: 4 items correctly recalled, based on tone, presented after the stimuli disappeared Conclusions Large-capacity memory store that fades very quickly Information must be accessed before it fades, or it is lost Attention is necessary to move information from SM to STM
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Short-Term Memory Short-term memory store is the only memory store whose contents you are aware of. Characteristics Duration: Several seconds without rehearsal, typically 30 seconds with rehearsal Capacity: Small, typically 5-9 items Processes in STM Chunking Rehearsal
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Expertise & Chunking
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Expertise & Chunking
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Capacity depends… What you can say in ~1.5 seconds Word length effect Short words Chad, Cuba Long words Zimbabwe, Australia
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Word Length Effect
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Short-Term Memory Original conceptualization of STM criticized for: Not emphasizing active processing of information Rehearsal is relatively passive and does not sufficiently explain other processes for keeping information active in memory Not emphasizing visual information Original focus was on auditory information Not emphasizing the role of attention
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Working Memory (WM) WM was proposed by Baddeley (1986) to address the limitations of the original STM model Three components of WM Central executive Articulatory loop Visuospatial sketch pad (VSSP)
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Working Memory Functions of WM Central Executive Controls activity of the articulatory loop and VSSP Articulatory Loop Tape recorder
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