Chapter 17 - Terms 1 The Columbian Exchange Exchange of peoples plants animals diseases and technologies between the Americas and the rest of the world

Chapter 17 - Terms 1 The Columbian Exchange Exchange of...

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Terms: 1. The Columbian Exchange - Exchange of , peoples, plants, animals, diseases, and technologies between the Americas and the rest of the world after Columbus' voyages. (European invasion and settlement of Western Hemisphere; native/indigenous peoples had no resistance to old world disease, which caused devastation) 2. The Council of the Indies- Institution responsible for supervising Spain's colonies in the Americas from 1524 to early 18th century, when it lost all but judicial responsibilities (Geography limited the Council's real power because a ship needed more than 200 days to make a roundtrip voyage from Spain to Veracruz) 3. Encomienda - A grant of authority over a population of Amerindians in the Spanish colonies. Provided the grant holder with a supply of cheap labor and periodic payments of goods by Amerindians. Obliged grant holder to Christianize the Amerindians (forced labor in Spanish colonies where Amerindian peoples were divided among settlers and were forced to provide them with labor or textiles, food, or other goods) 4. Mita - Andean labor system based on shared obligations to help kinsmen and work on behalf of the ruler and religious organizations; one-seventh adult male Amerindians were compelled to work for six months each year in mines, farms, or textile factories. 5. Hidalgos - Lesser nobles; considered the "merchants, artisans, miners, priests, and lawyers" 6. creoles - In colonial Spanish America, term used to describe someone of European decent born in the New World. Elsewhere, term used to describe all non-native people 7. encomenderos - Conquistadors and early settlers who received from the Crown grants of labor and

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