lec 16 - Lecture 16 Organization and Function of the Genome...

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Lecture 16 Lecture 16 Organization and Function Organization and Function of the Genome of the Genome
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What is a genome? What is a genome? The total DNA complement of a given organism Includes: chromosomes, plasmids, viral
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Genomic Information Genomic Information • How large are microbial genomes? • How many genes are in microbial genomes? • How are the genes organized and where are they located with respect to one another? • How is gene expression regulated ? • What genes are involved in specific pathways ( i.e., degradation of certain compounds, development, pathogenesis, and more)
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How does genome information benefit us? How does genome information benefit us? metabolic capabilities of an organism leads to the development of new therapeutic agents relevant for industrial and medical applications allows comparisons of different organisms furthers our understanding of how life has evolved
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Gene Organization in Microbial Cells Composition Chromosome Size ( nt /genes) I. Viruses RNA/DNA (ss and ds) linear/circular ~10 3+ < 25 dsDNA II. Bacteria circular* (1*) (haploid) + plasmids ~10 6 ~10 3 0.5 - 8 x10 6 III. Eukarya dsDNA linear (multiple) (haploid/diploid) + plasmids (rare) + organelle 10 3 -10 4 10 7 -10 8
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Viral Gene Organization - Very Diverse (5000-200,000nt) - Require host machinery for replication and expression - Very Few Genes (< 25, often overlapping) Naked Virus Enveloped Virus
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Prokaryotic Gene Organization • Chromosome • Large, single copy, typically circular • nucleoid • housekeeping genes • Non-Chromosomal - Plasmid • small, circular (<10 4 bp) • replicate independent of chromosome • multicopy • “specialty genes” • Transposable elements
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Compaction of the Genome • In a “relaxed” state, the E. coli genome would occupy 10X its volume • Utilizes ATP-dependent Topoisomerases to compact the genome = “Supercoiling” • Proteins are involved in further formation of supercoiled domains
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Supercoiling via Topoisomerase
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Gene organization in Prokaryotes - Operons • Genes with related functions are often grouped together • Transcribed as a single mRNA = polycistronic • Single promoter, several genes in mRNA = operon • Transcription & translation coupled
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Eukaryotic Gene Organization • DNA enclosed in nucleus • Compaction occurs via topoisomerase and nucleosomes • Linear Chromosomes (centromeres/telomeres)
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Eukaryotic Gene Regulation • typically monocistronic • pre-mRNA contains introns • processing generates mature mRNA
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Some stuff you should be familiar with. .. restriction enzymes plasmids / cloning plasmids / expression
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.. PCR
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This note was uploaded on 07/29/2008 for the course MIMG 101 taught by Professor Bradley during the Spring '08 term at UCLA.

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lec 16 - Lecture 16 Organization and Function of the Genome...

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