chapters 9-11 - ZOO 170 (PHS 170) Unit 3: Control Systems...

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ZOO 170 (PHS 170) Unit 3: Control Systems of the Human Body C HAPTER 9: NERVOUS TISSUE Page 1 of 5 A. Overview of the nervous system Nervous system : all the nervous tissue in the body Neurology: the branch of medical science that deals with the normal functioning and disorders of the nervous system What is the basic structure of the nervous system? Divided into two main subdivisions 1. Central nervous system (CNS) : consists of the brain and spinal cord 2. Peripheral nervous system (PNS) : all nervous tissue ouside the CNS Brain : Cranial nerves : 12 pairs Nerve : a bundle of axons, connective tissue, and blood vessels that lie outside the brain and spinal cord Spinal cord : 31 pairs Ganglia : a collection of cell bodies located outside the central nervous system; closely associated with the brain and spinal cord. Sensory receptors : are either dendrites or specialized cells that monitor changes What are the functions of the nervous system? Sensory functions : sensory receptors detect different types of stimuli; sensory neurons (A.K.A. afferent neurons ) carry the information to the CNS Integrative functions : processes sensory information and make decisions for appropriate responses; interneurons Motor functions : response to integrative decisions; motor neurons (A.K.A. efferent neurons) send impulses to effectors What is the organization of the nervous system? Peripheral Nervous System is further subdivided into 1. Somatic nervous system : consists of sensory neurons that conveys sensory information to the CNS, and motor neurons that conduct information away from the CNS to skeletal muscles only; actions are voluntary ZOO 170 (PHS 170) Unit 3: Control Systems of the Human Body C HAPTER 9: NERVOUS TISSUE Page 2 of 5 2. Autonomic nervous system : consists of sensory neurons that convey information from autonomic sensors to the CNS and motor neurons which conduct information to smooth muscle, cardiac muscle and glands; the motor portion of the CNS is divided into 2
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subdivisions; actions are involuntary i) Sympathetic Nervous System : emergency situations ii) Parasympathetic Nervous System : rest and digest activities 3. Enteric nervous system (A.K.A. “Brain of the Gut”) : sensory neurons detect chemical changes in the gut as well as stretching of the walls,; motor neurons govern smooth muscle contraction, secretions of the organs and activity of the GI endocrine glands B. Histology of nervous tissue What are the histological characteristics of neurons and neuroglia? Functions? Neurons : the basic information processing units 1. Dendrites : the input parts of a neuron 2. Cell body : contains the nucleus and is responsible for synthesis of most of the cells molecules 3. Axon hillock : the portion of the axon closest to the cell body and is where impulses arise 4. Axon : the portion of the cell which conducts nerve impulses away from the cell body 5. Axon collaterals : side branches of the axon 6. axon terminals : the end of an axon collateral 7. Synapse
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chapters 9-11 - ZOO 170 (PHS 170) Unit 3: Control Systems...

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