Chem 141 Chapter 8

Chem 141 Chapter 8 - Chemistry 141 Summer 2008 Silberberg...

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8-1 Chemistry 141 Summer 2008 Silberberg – Chapter 8 Dr. Ben Tovrog
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8-2 Silberberg Chapter 8 Problem Assignment These problems are for your practice. They will not be collected or graded.. Easy and Medium: 8.6, 8.11, 8.13, 8.16, 8.21, 8.23, 8.25, 8.27, 8.29, 8.31, 8.33, 8.35, 8.37, 8.39, 8.41, 8.43, 8.46, 8.48, 8.50, 8.53, 8.55, 8.57, 8.59, 8.64, 8.68, 8.70, 8.72, 8.74, 8.76, 8.78, 8.80, 8.82, 8.86, 8.92, Hard: 8.95, 8.97, 8.99
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8-3 Electron Configuration and Chemical Periodicity 8.1 Development of the Periodic Table 8.2 Characteristics of Many-Electron Atoms 8.3 The Quantum-Mechanical Model and the Periodic Table 8.4 Trends in Three Key Atomic Properties 8.5 Atomic Structure and Chemical Reactivity
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8-4 Figure 8.1 Observing the Effect of Electron Spin The Stern-Gerlach experiment.
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8-5 Table 8.2 Summary of Quantum Numbers of Electrons in Atoms Name Symbol Permitted Values Property principal n positive integers(1,2,3,…) orbital energy (size) angular momentum l integers from 0 to n-1 orbital shape (The l values 0, 1, 2, and 3 correspond to s, p, d, and f orbitals, respectively.) magnetic m l integers from - l to 0 to + l orbital orientation spin m s +1/2 or -1/2 direction of e - spin New
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8-6 Factors Affecting Atomic Orbital Energies Additional electron in the same orbital An additional electron raises the orbital energy through electron-electron repulsions. Additional electrons in inner orbitals Inner electrons shield outer electrons more effectively than do electrons in the same sublevel. Higher nuclear charge lowers orbital energy (stabilizes the system) by increasing nucleus-electron attractions. The Effect of Nuclear Charge (Z effective ) The Effect of Electron Repulsions (Shielding)
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8-7 Figure 8.3 The effect of nuclear charge on orbital energy.
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8-8 Figure 8.4 Shielding
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8-9 Figure 8.5 The effect of orbital shape
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8-10 Illustrating Orbital Occupancies The electron configuration n l # of electrons in the sublevel as s,p,d,f The orbital diagram (box or circle) Figure 8.6 Order for filling energy sublevels with electrons Up or down arrows indicate m s
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8-11 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 3d 4s 4p 4d 4f 5s 5p 5d 5f 5g
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8-12 Three Orbital Occupancy Principles The Aufbau principle says that as protons are added to the nucleus to build up the elements, electrons are added first to the lowest energy atomic orbitals available before they fill higher energy orbitals. The second principle is called the Pauli Exclusion Principle. There are two aspects to this principle. The first is that when electrons are added to orbitals, they can contain only one or two electrons (never three or more). The second aspect is to imagine electrons as if they were “spinning like a top”. If it is spinning in one direction, we call it “spin up” and we give it a designation ↑ . Alternatively “spin down” electrons are given designation ↓. If two electrons are contained in an orbital, one is spin up and one is spin down, i.e. ↑↓ The third principle is Hund’s Rule which stays that if multiple orbitals with the same energy are available, they will be occupied by single electrons with the same spin before a second electron (with opposing spins) pair up in the same orbital.
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8-13 dark - filled, spin-paired light - half-filled no color-empty Figure 8.7 A vertical orbital diagram for the Li ground state
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