Chem 141 Chapter 8

Chem 141 Chapter 8 - 8-1Chemistry 141Summer 2008Silberberg...

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Unformatted text preview: 8-1Chemistry 141Summer 2008Silberberg – Chapter 8Dr. Ben Tovrog8-2Silberberg Chapter 8 Problem AssignmentThese problems are for your practice. They will not be collected or graded.. Easy and Medium:8.6, 8.11, 8.13, 8.16, 8.21, 8.23, 8.25, 8.27, 8.29, 8.31, 8.33, 8.35, 8.37, 8.39, 8.41, 8.43, 8.46, 8.48, 8.50, 8.53, 8.55, 8.57, 8.59, 8.64, 8.68, 8.70, 8.72, 8.74, 8.76, 8.78, 8.80, 8.82, 8.86, 8.92, Hard:8.95, 8.97, 8.998-3Electron Configuration and Chemical Periodicity8.1Development of the Periodic Table8.2Characteristics of Many-Electron Atoms8.3 The Quantum-Mechanical Model and the Periodic Table8.4Trends in Three Key Atomic Properties8.5Atomic Structure and Chemical Reactivity8-4Figure 8.1Observing the Effect of Electron SpinThe Stern-Gerlach experiment. 8-5Table 8.2 Summary of Quantum Numbers of Electrons in AtomsNameSymbolPermitted ValuesPropertyprincipalnpositive integers(1,2,3,…)orbital energy (size)angular momentumlintegers from 0 to n-1orbital shape (The lvalues 0, 1, 2, and 3 correspond to s, p, d, and f orbitals, respectively.)magneticmlintegers from -lto 0 to +lorbital orientationspinms+1/2 or -1/2direction of e-spinNew 8-6Factors Affecting Atomic Orbital EnergiesAdditional electron in the same orbitalAn additional electron raises the orbital energy through electron-electron repulsions.Additional electrons in inner orbitalsInner electrons shield outer electrons more effectively than do electrons in the same sublevel.Higher nuclear charge lowers orbital energy (stabilizes the system) by increasing nucleus-electron attractions.The Effect of Nuclear Charge (Zeffective)The Effect of Electron Repulsions (Shielding)8-7Figure 8.3The effect of nuclear charge on orbital energy.8-8Figure 8.4Shielding8-9Figure 8.5The effect of orbital shape8-10Illustrating Orbital OccupanciesThe electron configurationnl#of electrons in the sublevelas s,p,d,fThe orbital diagram (box or circle)Figure 8.6Order for filling energy sublevels with electronsUp or down arrows indicate ms8-111s2s 2p3s 3p 3d4s 4p 4d 4f5s 5p 5d 5f 5g1s2s 2p3s 3p 3d4s 4p 4d 4f5s 5p 5d 5f 5g1s2s 2p3s 3p 3d4s 4p 4d 4f5s 5p 5d 5f 5g8-12Three Orbital Occupancy Principles•The Aufbauprinciple says that as protons are added to the nucleus to build up the elements, electrons are added first to the lowest energy atomic orbitals available before they fill higher energy orbitals. •The second principle is called the Pauli Exclusion Principle.There are two aspects to this principle. The first is that when electrons are added to orbitals, they can contain only one or two electrons (never three or more). The second aspect is to imagine electrons as if they were “spinning like a top”. If it is spinning in one direction, we call it “spin up” and we give it a designation ↑ . Alternatively “spin down” electrons are given designation ↓. If two electrons are contained in an orbital, one is spin up and one is spin down, i.e. ↑↓•The third principle is Hund’s Rulewhich stays that if multiple orbitals...
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This note was uploaded on 07/30/2008 for the course CHEM 141 taught by Professor Mulfod during the Summer '08 term at Emory.

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Chem 141 Chapter 8 - 8-1Chemistry 141Summer 2008Silberberg...

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