Chem 141 Chapter 5

Chem 141 Chapter 5 - 5-1Chemistry 141Summer 2008Silberberg...

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Unformatted text preview: 5-1Chemistry 141Summer 2008Silberberg Chapter 5Dr. Ben Tovrog5-2Gases and the Kinetic Molecular Theory5.1 An Overview of the Physical States of Matter5.2 Gas Pressure and Its Measurement5.3 The Gas Laws and Their Experimental Foundations5.4 Further Applications of the Ideal Gas Law5.5 The Ideal Gas Law and Reaction Stoichiometry5.6 The Kinetic-Molecular Theory: A Model for Gas BehaviorDrop Mean Free Path and Collision Frequency5.7 Real Gases: Deviations from Ideal Behavior5-3Silberberg Chapter 5 Problem AssignmentThese problems are for your practice. They will not be collected or graded. Easy and Medium:5.6, 5.8, 5.10, 5.20, 5.22, 5.24, 5.26, 5.28, 5.30, 5.33, 5.35, 5.38, 5.40, 5.42, 5.44, 5.48, 5.51, 5.53, 5.57, 5.59, 5.63, 5.66, 5.67, 5.71, 5.73, 5.75, 5.77, 5.80, 5.86, 5.88, 5.90, 5.95, 5.97, 5.103, 5.117, 5.128, Hard:5.107, 5.109, 5.121, 5.135, 5.140, 5.142, 5.1465-4An Overview of the Physical States of MatterThe Distinction of Gases from Liquids and Solids1. Gas volume changes greatly with pressure.2. Gas volume changes greatly with temperature.3. Gases have relatively low viscosity.4. Most gases have relatively low densities under normal conditions.5. Gases are miscible.5-5Figure 5.3A mercury barometer.5-6Figure 5.4Two types of manometerclosed-endopen-end5-7Table 5.2 Common Units of PressureAtmospheric PressureUnitScientific Fieldchemistryatmosphere(atm)1 atm*pascal(Pa); kilopascal(kPa)1.01325x105Pa; 101.325 kPaSI unit; physics, chemistrymillimeters of mercury(Hg)760 mm Hg*chemistry, medicine, biologytorr760 torr*chemistrypounds per square inch (psi or lb/in2)14.7lb/in2engineeringbar1.01325 barmeteorology, chemistry, physics*This is an exact quantity; in calculations, we use as many significant figures as necessary.5-8Sample Problem 5.1Converting Units of PressurePROBLEM:A geochemist heats a limestone (CaCO3) sample and collects the CO2released in an evacuated flask attached to a closed-end manometer. After the system comes to room temperature, h = 291.4 mm Hg. Calculate the CO2pressure in torrs, atmospheres, and kilopascals.SOLUTION:PLAN:Construct conversion factors to find the other units of pressure.291.4 mmHg1torr1 mmHg= 291.4 torr291.4 torr1 atm760 torr= 0.3834 atm0.3834 atm101.325 kPa1 atm= 38.85 kPa5-9Figure 5.5The relationship between the volume and pressure of a gas.Boyles Law5-10The relationship between the volume and temperature of a gas.Charless Law5-11BoylesLawn and T are fixedV 1PCharlessLawV TP and n are fixedVT= constantV = constant x TAmontonssLawP TV and n are fixedPT= constantP = constant x Tcombined gas lawV TPV = constant xTPPVT= constantV x P= constantV = constant / P5-12STP and Combined Gas LawStandard Temperature and Pressure:T = 0 C = 273.15 KP = 1 atm At STP, 1 moleof an ideal gas has a volume of 22.4 L....
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Chem 141 Chapter 5 - 5-1Chemistry 141Summer 2008Silberberg...

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