Chem 141 Chapter 2

Chem 141 Chapter 2 - 2-1Chemistry 141Summer 2008Silberberg...

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Unformatted text preview: 2-1Chemistry 141Summer 2008Silberberg Chapter 2Dr. Ben Tovrog2-2These problems are for your practice. They will not be collected or graded. It is essential you develop the ability to work easy and medium problems in a fast and efficient manner. Most have answers given in the back of the text. After you master these I encourage you to complete hard problems. Easy and Medium:2.4, 2.11, 2.13, 2.14, 2.18, 2.20, 2.22, 2.24, 2.27, 2.54, 2.58, 2.60, 2.64, 2.66, 2.68, 2.72, 2.74, 2.76, 2.78, 2.82, 2.84, 2.88, 2.90, 2.92, 2.98, 2.100.2.102, 2.104, , 2.126,2.128, 2.129, 2.139, 2.143Hard:2.130, 2.135, 2.145Silberberg Chapter 2 Problem Assignment2-3Chapter 2: The Components of Matter2.1Elements, Compounds, and Mixtures: An Atomic Overview2.2The Observations That Led to an Atomic View of Matter2.3Daltons Atomic Theory2.4The Observations That Led to the Nuclear Atom Model2.5The Atomic Theory Today2.6Elements: A First Look at the Periodic Table2.7Compounds: Introduction to Bonding2.8Compounds: Formulas, Names, and Masses2.9Mixtures: Classification and Separation----------------------------------------------------------2-4Definitions for Components of MatterElement- the simplest type of substance with unique physical and chemical properties. An element consists of only one type of atom. It cannot be broken down into any simpler substances by physical or chemical means.Molecule- a structure that consists of two or more atoms that are chemically bound together and thus behaves as an independent unit.Figure 2.1Figure 2.12-5Compound- a substance composed of two or more elements which are chemically combined.Mixture- a group of two or more elements and/or compounds that are physically intermingled.Definitions for Components of MatterFigure 2.12-6The total mass of substances does not change during a chemical reaction.reactant 1 + reactant 2producttotal masstotal mass=calcium oxide + carbon dioxidecalcium carbonateCaO + CO2CaCO356.08g + 44.00g100.08gLaw of Mass Conservation:2-7No matter the source, a particular compound is composed of the same elements in the same parts (fractions) by mass.Calcium carbonate Calcium carbonate Analysis by MassAnalysis by Mass(grams/20.0g)(grams/20.0g)Mass FractionMass Fraction(parts/1.00 part)(parts/1.00 part)Percent by MassPercent by Mass(parts/100 parts)(parts/100 parts)8.0 g calcium8.0 g calcium2.4 g carbon2.4 g carbon9.6 g oxygen 9.6 g oxygen 20.0 g20.0 g40% calcium40% calcium12% carbon12% carbon48% oxygen 48% oxygen 100% by mass100% by mass0.40 calcium0.40 calcium0.12 carbon0.12 carbon0.48 oxygen 0.48 oxygen 1.00 part by mass1.00 part by massLaw of Definite (or Constant) Composition:Figure 2.32-8Daltons Atomic TheoryDaltons Atomic Theory1. All matter consists of atoms....
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This note was uploaded on 07/30/2008 for the course CHEM 141 taught by Professor Mulfod during the Summer '08 term at Emory.

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Chem 141 Chapter 2 - 2-1Chemistry 141Summer 2008Silberberg...

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