Chem 141 Chapter 10

Chem 141 Chapter 10 - Chemistry 141 Summer 2008 Silberberg...

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10-1 Chemistry 141 Summer 2008 Silberberg – Chapter 10 Dr. Ben Tovrog
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10-2 These problems are for your practice. They will not be collected or graded. Easy and Medium: 10.1, 10.3, 10.5, 10.7, 10.9, 10.11, 10.13, 10.15, 10.17, 10.19, 10.21, 10.23, 10.26, 10.28, 10.30, 10.34, 10.36, 10.38, 10.40, 10.42, 10.44, 10.46, 10.48, 10.51, 10.52, 10.55, 10.57, 10.93, Hard, Really Hard and Outrageously Hard 10.59, 10.61, 10.64, 10.67, 10.70, 10.72, 10.76, 10.79, 10.82, 10.84, 10.86, 10.88, 10.91, 10.98 Silberberg Chapter 10 Problem Assignment
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10-3 The Shapes of Molecules 10.1 Depicting Molecules and Ions with Lewis Structures 10.2 Valence-Shell Electron-Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) Theory and Molecular Shape 10.3 Molecular Shape and Molecular Polarity
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10-4 Lewis Structure Process Steps 1. Count all valence electrons. (For polyatomic ions, add electrons equal to charge on anion, for cations, subtract electrons equal to charge). 3. Choose center atom (least electronegative element. H is never the center atom) 5. Draw skeletal structure with one bond between center atom and each outer atom. Deduct two electrons from total for each bond formed. 7. Place electron pairs around outer atoms to satisfy octets. If outer atom is H, only 2 electrons are needed. 9. Place remaining electron pairs on center atom. 11. If needed form double or triple bonds with center atom to satisfy center atom octet. Exceptions – Some Group 2 and 3 center atoms have less than 8 electrons. Be has 4 electrons, B center atoms have 6 electrons. Period 3 and 4 element center atoms may have 10, 12 or more electrons
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10-5 Molecular formula Atom placement Sum of valence e - Remaining valence e - Lewis structure For NF 3 N F F F N 5e - F 7e - X 3 = 21e - Total 26e - : : : : : : :
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10-6 SAMPLE PROBLEM 10.1 Writing Lewis Structures for Molecules with One Central Atom SOLUTION: PROBLEM: Write a Lewis structure for CCl 2 F 2 , one of the compounds responsible for the depletion of stratospheric ozone. PLAN: Follow the steps outlined in Figure 10.1 . Step 1: Carbon has the lowest EN and is the central atom. The other atoms are placed around it. C Steps 2-4: C has 4 valence e - , Cl and F each have 7. The sum is 4 + 4(7) = 32 valence e - . Cl Cl F F C Cl Cl F F Make bonds and fill in remaining valence electrons placing 8e - around each atom. : : : : : : :
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SAMPLE PROBLEM 10.2 Writing Lewis Structure for Molecules with More than One Central Atom PROBLEM: Write the Lewis structure for methanol (molecular formula CH 4 O), an important industrial alcohol that is being used as a gasoline alternative in car engines. SOLUTION: Hydrogen can have only one bond so C and O must be next to each other with H filling in the bonds. There are 4(1) + 4 + 6 = 14 valence e
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Chem 141 Chapter 10 - Chemistry 141 Summer 2008 Silberberg...

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