Chapter 5 Review

Chapter 5 Review - Chapter 5 Minerals 1. Be familiar with...

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Chapter 5 – Minerals 1. Be familiar with the basic chemistry definitions found on Page 111 and in Appendix A & B. Element: a pure substance that cannot be separated into other elements. Proton: nucleus of atom, positive charge same number of electrons to make a neutral charge Neutron: neutral charge Electron: negative charge cloud of orbiting electrons circle nucleus Ion: an atom that is not neutral Isotope: two atoms which have same # of protons and different # of neutrons Atom: the smallest piece of an element that retains the characteristics of the element. Atomic number: the number of protons in an atom of an element Atomic weight: the approximate number of protons plus neutrons in an atom of an element Cation: positively charged ion has more protons than electrons Anion: excess negative charge has more electrons than protons Chemical bond: a attractive force that holds two or more atoms together Molecule: two or more atoms bonded together. The atoms may be of the same element or of different elements. Compound: a pure substance that can be subdivided into two or more elements. Chemical: a general name used for a pure substance (either an element or compound) Chemical formula: a shorthand recipe that itemizes the various elements in a chemical and specifies their relative proportions. Chemical reaction: a process that involves the breaking or forming of chemical bonds Mixture: a combination of two or more elements or compounds that can be separated without a chemical reaction Solution: a type of material in which one chemical (the solute) dissolves (becomes completely incorporated) in another (the solvent) Precipitate: a compound that forms when ions in liquid solution join together to create a solid that settles out of the solution. Why are minerals important? Industrial minerals: raw materials for manufacturing chemicals, concrete wallboard Ore Minerals: source of metals (copper and gold) also mined for energy uranium Gems: investments, jewelry Form rocks: composition of melt, metamorphic history
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This note was uploaded on 07/30/2008 for the course GEOL 110 taught by Professor Centorbi during the Summer '08 term at Maryland.

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Chapter 5 Review - Chapter 5 Minerals 1. Be familiar with...

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