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Unformatted text preview: Multielectron Atoms While Quantum Theory gives exact equations describing the H-atom, which has only one electron, it runs into problems trying to give exact equations of atoms with many electrons. This is because in addition to the electrostatic attraction between the electron and the positively charged nucleus, there are electrostatic repulsions between electrons. The problem starts to get complicated quickly. In spite of this problem, approximate solutions can be obtained, which can, in fact, be quite accurate. For a multi-electron atom the energy of a particular electron in the atom is given by Which looks the same as for a single electron atom except that now we use an effective charge for the positively charged nucleus. The effective charge is reduced from the full charge due to the shielding of the nuclear charge by other electron in the atom. The effective nuclear charge equates the number of protons in the nucleus, Z , minus the average number of electrons, S , between the nucleus and the electron of interest. In a multi-electron atom it turns out that the effective charge, Z eff , decreases with increasing value of...
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- Winter '08