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Lecture Note - The Gaseous State

Lecture Note - The Gaseous State - The Gaseous State We...

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The Gaseous State We have a pretty good understanding of the gaseous state in terms of the link between the variables describing the microscopic (atomic-scale) realm, and the variables describing the macroscopic realm. In the microscopic world we can talk about position, velocity, and mass of the individual atoms, all of which are governed by Newton's laws of motion. By the use of statistical mechanics and averages we can then relate these variables to the macroscopic world by talking about such quantities as pressure, volume, temperature, and moles. For now, though, let's focus on the macroscopic world and search for an equation of state that will tell us the relationships between all these macroscopic world quantities. Boyle's Law We start with the experimental observations of Robert Boyle, who showed that the quantities of pressure times volume are a constant. This is called Boyle's Law. This is shown in the diagrams below.
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Each line on the graph is a line of constant temperature, and is called an isotherm. In a plot of P versus 1/V, we see that the isotherms are straight lines with constant slopes. For an ideal gas the pressure times the volume is constant, but for real-world gases this is not always true.
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