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Lecture Note - Solution Reactions

# Lecture Note - Solution Reactions - Solution Reactions...

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Solution Reactions Precipitation Reactions Precipitate - an insoluble solid formed by a reaction in solution. Consider the following molecular equation: AgNO 3 (aq) + NaCl (aq) → AgCl (s) + NaNO 3 (aq) The net ionic equation of the above molecular equation is: Ag + (aq) + Cl - (aq) → AgCl (s) In order to know which ions will combine to form precipitates, we have the solubility rules Solubility Rules 1. All salts containing NH 4 + and group IA cations (Li + , Na + , K + , Rb + , Cs + , ) are soluble . 2. All salts containing NO 3 - , C 2 H 3 O 2 - , HClO 3 - , and ClO 4 - are soluble . 3. All salts containing Cl - , Br - , and I - are soluble , except those with Ag + , Hg 2 2+ , and Pb 2+ 4. All salts containing SO 4 2- are soluble , except PbSO 4 , BaSO 4 , HgSO 4 , CaSO 4 , and AgSO 4 . 5. Most salts containing O 2- , OH - , PO 4 3- , CO 3 2- , and S 2- are insoluble , except those containing NH 4 + and group IA cations. Determine the net ionic equation for the following reaction: Ba(NO 3 ) 2 + Na 2 SO 4 → BaSO 4 + 2NaNO 3 Rule number 4 tells us that BaSO 4 is insoluble. So we can write the complete ionic equation as Ba 2+ (aq) +2 NO 3 - (aq) +2 Na + (aq) +SO 4 2- (aq) → BaSO 4 (s) +2 Na + (aq) +NO 3 - (aq) Removing the spectator ions leaves us with the net ionic equation: Ba 2+ (aq) + SO 4 2- (aq) → BaSO 4 (s) Gas Reactions Sometimes a gas will be involved as one of the reactants or products in a solution reaction. For example, 2 HCl (aq) + Na 2 S (aq) → H 2 S (gas) + 2 NaCl (aq) In this example the complete ionic equation would be: 2 H + (aq) + 2Cl - (aq) + 2Na + (aq) + S 2- (aq) → H 2 S (g) + 2Na + (aq) + 2Cl - (aq) Removing the spectator ions we obtain the net ionic equation:

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2 H + (aq) + S 2- (aq) → H 2 S (g) H 2 S is just one example of a gaseous substance that can form in a solution reaction. Another way gases can form in solution is through the decomposition of weak electrolytes. For example, H 2 CO 3 readily decomposes into H 2 O and CO 2 gas, H 2 CO 3 (aq) → H 2 O (l) + CO 2 (g) So, any solution reaction that leads to the production of H
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Lecture Note - Solution Reactions - Solution Reactions...

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