Lecture Note - Solution Chemistry

Lecture Note - Solution Chemistry - Solution Chemistry In...

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Solution Chemistry In the first week of class we learned that a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances is called a solution. If one of the substances is present in much greater quantities than all the other substances then it is called the solvent . The other substances in solution are known as solutes . For example, when a small amount of NH 4 Cl is dissolved in a large quantity of water we refer to water as the solvent and NH 4 Cl as the solute. Another example is Napthalene (used in mothballs) can be dissolved in benzene. In this example benzene is the solvent and napthalene is the solute. Solutes dissolved in water (solvent) are called aqueous solutions. Not all substances are soluble in water. Why do some substances dissolve in water and others don't? It has to do with the structure of the water molecule. Oxygen has a greater attraction for electrons, so the shared electrons (bonding electrons) spend more time close to oxygen then to either of the hydrogens. This gives oxygen a slightly excess negative charge and hydrogen a slightly more positive charge. This unequal charge distribution makes water a polar molecule, and gives water its ability to dissolve compounds. When an ionic solid dissolves in water, the positive ends of the water molecule are attracted to the negatively charged anions and the negative ends of the water molecule are attracted to the positively charged cations. For example, when NaCl is dissolved in water we find
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This note was uploaded on 07/31/2008 for the course CHY 152 taught by Professor Foucher during the Winter '08 term at Ryerson.

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Lecture Note - Solution Chemistry - Solution Chemistry In...

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