Mao_s_Consolidation_of_Power (1)

Mao_s_Consolidation_of_Power (1) - 3.2 Maos consolidation...

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Unformatted text preview: 3.2 Mao’s consolidation of power, 1949—19?6 Key questions What methods did Mao use to consolidate his power? How did Mao establish and maintain an authoritarian state? Why did the Sine-Soviet rift happen? How successful was Mao's foreign policy? Key concepts Change Causes Perspectives Significance Confinuhg Chairman Mao and the People’s Republic After declaring the formation of the People‘s Republic of China {PRC} in October 1949, Mao Zedong and the CCP took hasty measures to secure full political control of the country. Although a sense of victory and relief electrified the nation, the communists also laced stiff opposition, both from within the country and on the international stage. Mao Zedong and the communists had promised to free the country from imperialism. smash class divisions and further the revolution. Expectations across the country were high, so the CCP was under pressure to quell opposition and satisfy national hopes. Although many were jubiiant. the country was still politically and economically unstable after decades of war and division. The CCP faced a number of urgent challenges: 0 Chiang Kaishek and the nationalists continued fighting before fleeing to Taiwan in December. From here they posed an invasion threat. 0 The United Nations accepted the nationalists in Taiwan. not the CCP. as the legitimate government of China. 0 Opposition parties within China still existed and posed a threat to CCP control. 0 Many party cadres were trained as a guerrilla force, and had not acquired the skills to govern. 0 The communists feared that separatist elements on China’s remote borders would undermine unity. 0 Expectations were high in a war-weary nation used to inflation. unemployment, and corruption. 0 There were serious rebellions. especially in the south. by villagers who wanted to resist grain requisitioning and imminent land reform. A. 1 October 1949: Mao Zedong proclaims the People's Republic of China cadres Devoted Communist Party workers who spied and reported on fellow CCP members and the public. f f “.meL iii-123397;;- n AUTHORITARIAN STATES Source skills The declaration of the People's Republic of China 1 was so full ofjoy that my heart hearty burst out of my throat, and tears weiied up in my eyes. I was so proud of China, so full of hope, so happy that the exploitation and suffering, the aggression from foreigners, would be gone for ever. I had no dottbt that Mao was the great leader of the revolution, the maker of a new Chinese history - an oniooker in the crowds when Mao declared the PRC. Source: F. Dikotter in T he Tragedy of Liberation. Duesfion What is the message conveyed by this source? reunification campaigns A means for the CCP to secure full control of China and its borders; claims that these areas were historically part of China are contested to this dag. Research and discuss the claim that Tibet is historicallg part of China. Why do historians disagree? Is there such a thing as historical fact? 12B Moderate beginnings The communists aimed to bring stability after decades of turmoil and had little choice but to ask the former government servants and police to stay on initially. The Chinese middle classes provided the civil servants and the industrial managers and, on condition oi their loyalty to the PRC. were convinced to stay. Under the slogan “New Democracy", a new era of cooperation began and only the most hardened enemies of the regime were stamped out. The structure of the PRC In order to administer the country, China was divided into six regions, each governed by a bureau of four major officials: 0 Chairman 0 Party secretary 0 Military commander 0 Political commissar. Officers of the People's Liberation Army (PLA) filled the last two posts, which put China effectively under military control. Central authority rested with the Central People's Government Council. This comprised 56 leading party members, mostly veterans of the Yanan years. Six of them served as vice-chairman under the Chairman of the Council. Mao Zedong. Mao was the undiSputed leader in government. The reunification campaigns The CCP feared that nationalist elements could weaken a united China. Religion posed a particular threat to communist control because it fuelled resistance to a centralized communist amhority. In order to secure China’s borders, PLA units were sent to annex the outlying parts of China in a series of reunification campaigns. They invaded regions to the west and south of China. In October 1950, PLA forces entered Tibet. The Tibetans had a significantly different racial, cultural and religious identity from the Chinese. Tibetan Buddhists identified with the authority of their spiritual leader, the Dalai Lama. Around 60 000 Tibetans fought to defend their autonomy but they did not have the weapons or the training to match the PLA, who took lull control of Tibet within six months. This marked the beginning of a regime of terror and suppression in Tibet. (See the Tibetan Uprising of 1959 on page 139.) The FLA invasion forces acted with similar brutality in Xinjiang. a distant western province with a large Muslim population bordering Soviet- controlled Outer Mongolia. The CCP feared Xinjiang falling into Soviet hands or even becoming part of a separatist movement, supported by neighbouring Muslim states. By 1951 the PLA had secured lull control of the province, while at the same time Securing CCP authority in Guangdong in southern China, the traditional base of the GMD. 3:29:32”. awn—30.n— uuuuu nE—EB .mcoszSE . _. u .533“. m>zm:m_c_Eu< I deflbm (2.70 IhDOm AdthwU 5.. .|..l|_ .. Sm 8m 9 LxxOy... .. IV .. x . fix 2.22:... .J¢~| 46V 02535 ......_......2< ES... 3322. ,. 2.2.2”. 53 o 5.. ex?! 242m: .. .1w. .9», ¢oo¢ .. 0 .. In.» . A K .mmw...4¢ n R ... be . 243...; .000 0.4,) 4v! onr. 0149 3% I... 0.7 - 2...: $.22 43004. 3522. ,, 42.5 2202 252:2 ..... ,. «2.5 53.25.02 , 024.3203: 5.60205. 2422.5 .1:er \/\ Fallru\\|/ Swan... .r/ I ImeSUEQm .m \ _.. \. D<m¢3m <Z=._U Hmm>>ihDOm F 215376 325?. 0252i $0.2. Ddumam <2_IU hmm>>i._.m02 ($me | L- The administrative regions of We People's Republic of China 129 AUTHORITARIAN STATES The anti-movements In 1951, Mao announced the beginning of a reform movement called the ”three-anti campaign" and, by 1952, he had extended this into the ”five-anti campaign”. After three years in power, Mao was beginning to turn on the middle class that had supported the CCP administration of China in its early years. The targets of the “three-anti campaign” were: 0 waste 0 corruption 0 inefficiency. The “five-anti campaign” targets were: 0 industrial sabotage 0 tax evasion o bribery 0 fraud - theft of government property. As part of these mass mobilization campaigns, Mao Zedong declared reactionarles and counter-revolutionaries reactionaries and counter-revolutionaries as enemies of the state. Those deemed to be the remnants of the Mao claimed a strong ideological basis for his actions: “bureaucratic capitalist class”. Essentially. the middle classes [bourgeoisie] posed a “counter-revolutionarg” threat to the communist revolution. Mao regarded “Our present task is to strengthen the people ’5 state apparatus - meaning principally the people '5 army, the people ’5 police and the people ‘s courts - thereby safeguarding the national defence and protecting the people's the destruction of the bourgeoisie as interest. essential forthe revolution, in which onlg English became seen as the language of foreign exploitation and no one class, the proletariat, orrevolutionarg transactions in English were tolerated. In the former French concession workers. would exist. of Shanghai, streets were renamed and foreign names became taboo in the cinema. Religion, Chinese customs, and traditions came under ferocious attack. Jazz was banned and, as the attack on intellectuals gained pace, hundreds of thousands of books were burned because they were vestiges of the feudal past. Censorship and prepaganda By February 1949 most newspapers were out of business and those that remained printed the same news. Once journalists and editors had gone through re-education, the CCP could rely on self-censorship so that all news reports conformed to the party line. Communist rallies, songs, and slogans widely advertised the success of the revolution. Many Chinese people participated with enthusiasm, believing that they were a part of a national transformation. Thought reform All over China, in government offices, factories, workshops, schools, and universities, people were “re-educated”. This process, also known as “thought reform", involved everyone having to learn the new party doctrine and transform themselves into “new people". Many were forced to write confessions and admit past mistakes, often in public. As Frank Dikotter wrote. “By the end of 1952 virtually every student or teacher was a loyal servant of the state”. The Great Terror In the early years of communist rule, the CCP could easily identify the ”enemy” because of the household registration system, which was started by the nationalists in areas they wanted to secure control of during the civil war. A household could be a family or any collective unit such as a factory dormitory or hospital department. Under the CCP, in addition to household registration, every individual was given a class label and ranked as “good". “middle", or “bad" on the basis of their loyalty to the party. These labels would determine a person's fate for decades to come because children would inherit the same status as the head of their household. This labelling became a key method of ensuring conformity. Local party officials turned China into a nation of informers. People turned in their neighbours, hopeful of reward. Friends denounced one another to show their allegiance to the regime. Children reported on their parents. Every street had officially appointed “watchers” who kept the CCP informed of anything or anyone su5picious. Those belonging to ”bad classes" were interrogated by the police. Vulnerable classes of people were deemed to be threats to the revolution and a drain on resources. These included paupers. beggars. pickpockets and prostitutes, millions of refugees, and the unemployed, who sought refuge in the cities. According to recent archive evidence that has come to light in China, by the end of 1949 some 4600 vagrants in Beijing had been sent to re-education centres and government reformatories. Labour camps There were many prison camps scattered across the remotest parts of the country. This network is sometimes called the laogai, an abbreviation of laodong gaizao, or ”reform through labour". These forced labour camps - modelled on the Soviet gulag - dated back to the early days of the CCP and at the height of the Great Terror the number of prisoners swelled when many “counter-revolutionaries" were sentenced to hard labour. By 1955, the number of people sent to the camps hovered at 2 million: nine out of ten were political prisoners. Judicial procedures were dispensed with altogether. so that people could be arrested and disappear into the camps without trial. Conditions in the camps were very harsh and torture and hunger were common. The average number of prisoners held in the camps each year during Mao's time was 10 million: during Mao's rule some 25 million people died in these camps. CHAPTER 3.2: MAO'S CONSOLIDATION OF POWER. 1949-1955 k I _ Communication skills There were three main class labels: good classes. the middle classes. and bad classes. Discuss which of the following groups would have fallen under each class label: revolutionary cadres, the pettg bourgeoisie. landlords. revolutionarg soldiers. middle peasants. intellectuals and professionals. revolutionary martyrs. industrial workers. capitalists. rich peasants. poor and lower- middle peasants. Write down your conclusions under each class label. denunciation This was a keg method of turning on the "enemies” of the revolution. Many denunciations were verg high profile. In 1955, Hu Feng. an intellectual critical of the communist attack on writers. was denounced in the People’s Daily. Mao personally wrote commentaries against him. Hu Fang was tried in secret and imprisoned for beinga counter- revolutionarg until 19?9. AUTHURITARIAN STATES Mass killings The new regime's most dangerous enemies were imprisoned or quietly executed. Others were interrogated or kept under surveillance. In the early 19505, thousands of “counter-revolutionaries" - spies, underground agents, and criminal bosses - were interrogated. In Shanghai and Guangzhou (Canton), the CCP turned on gangs triads and triads in a violent killing campaign and about 90 000 were Chinese secret societies, usuallg executed. Mao issued quotas for how many per thousand should criminal, involved in drugs, gambling be killed and many cadres were eager to reach or even surpass them. and prostitution. Official figures have recently come to light, but many killings were not recorded. The lowest estimates suggest a national killing rate of 1.2 per thousand. TDK discussion Look at the figures in the table to the left How should a historian assess the reliability of statistics? Class discussion Compare Mao's use of terror to that of - other dictators. Guangxi i""‘r"i"r'5“ . " gift-tat 3&1“? -.- . . - -. -. .. 301 800 1.59 Source: Report bg Luo Ruiqing, Shaanxi. 23 August 1952 Land reform Many peasants rejoiced in the arrival of land reform, which had already happened in many parts of China before 1949. Land was confiscated from landlords and redistributed among their former tenants. “Speak bitterness" campaigns and violence were used to humiliate, punish, and wipe out the landlords as a class. Between 2 million and 3 million landlords were killed as feudal China came under attack. In 1953 peasants were organized into mutual-aid teams. encouraged to share their tools and livestock. No sooner had peasants gained a plot of land than it was pooled into a cooperative; they had only nominal ownership of their land. Those that resisted were labelled class enemies. Villagers were locked into cooperatives at a rapid pace. This made it easier for the party to requisition grain and deveIOp a state monopoly over supplies. There was hunger and famine because state levies were high. By 1954 party cadres and militias succeeded in taking more grain than ever before. Such sweeping reforms across the countryside were heralded as a remarkable achievement for the communists. An alleged “landlord" facing a People's Tribunal minutes before being executed by a shot in the back in a village in Euangdong. July 1952 The one-partg state In 1949 there had been over ten separate political parties in China. These included the Left GMD, the Democratic League and splinter parties that had broken away from Chiang Kaishek's nationalists. In a number oi political purges, combined with the mass campaigns against “imperialists" and “counter-revolutionaries”, these parties were removed. By 1952, only the CCP was authorized to exist. The Communist Party claimed that power rested with the people and that party olficials and the government were servants of the nation. They made much of the claim that elections for party officials were held at a local level, and that the Chinese people elected the members oi the National People’s Congress (NPC), which was responsible for deciding national policy. In reality, party officials oversaw the election process so that anybody critical of Mao would have little chance of making a stand. Real authority rested with the Politburo and the National People's Congress simply rubber-stamped its decisions. Mao Zedong was Chairman of the Party and would also hold the office oi President of the PRC until 1959, which confirmed his supremacy in the party and country at large. This was justified on the basis of Democratic centralism. The Constitution of 1954 put in place a framework for the development of a legal system in China. A committee of the NPC controlled the appointment oljudges and each citizen was granted the right to a public trial. Equality was guaranteed before the law. In reality, none of this was practised until alter Mao's death. Politburo This was an innergroup of 20 or so leading members of the CCP. Democratic centralism A concept developed by Lenin and which Mao adapted to China, which maintained that although all communists were revolutionaries. onlg the leaders were educated in the science of revolution. In China's case. this meant accepting the ultimate authority of Mao Zedong. 133 n AUTHORITARIAN STATES v Power struggles Despite the growth of his authority, Mao Zedong grew increasingly paranoid and feared that his position was under threat. This was because of a number of challenges, including: 0 the impact of the Korean War (1950—1953) 0 the hardships caused by the Firsr Five-Year Plan to boost the economy through rapid industrialization (1952-1956). The Korean War, 1950—1953 At the end of the Second World War, the Korean Peninsula was occupied by US forces in the south and Soviet Union forces in the north, effectively dividing the nation into two at the 33th parallel. In 1948, two nations formed -— the communist Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (North Korea) and the Republic of Korea (South Korea). In June 1950, North Korea invaded South Korea in an attempt to seize its territory. The United Nations, led by the United States, intervened on the side of the South Koreans, but the South Korean capital, Seoul, quickly fell. By mid-September, North Korea occupied all but a small corner of South Korea surrounding Pusan. Maximum North Korean advance: 15 September 1950 U N counterattacks UN forces led by US General Douglas MacArthur invade at lnchon on 15 September 1950. By November. US forces occupy most of North Korea. including its capital. ‘1: Maximum United Nations advance: 24 November 1950 SEA OF JAPAN China enters war 0 China enters the war: 24 November 1950. UN forces withdraw into the south. 6 Maximum Chinese! North Korean advance: 21 January 1951 Stalemate e The war continues for two more years until a truce is announced with a no man's land along the 38th parallel: 27 July 1953 A A timeline of the Korean War, 1959— 1953 From 1910 until 1945. Korea was under Japanese occupation. After the defeat of Japan at the end of the Second World War, the north was ”liberated” by Soviet troops and the sourh by American troops. The 331h parallel divided the peninsula. Because of the Cold War rivalry that emerged at the end of the war, the USA and the USSR could not reach agreement over reunification and they established opposing systems of government. Stalin wanted to support the communist regime of Kim Il~Sung in the north and President Truman ensured that the south was non-communist under the leadership of Syngman Rhee. In 1950 the North Koreans attempted to bring about reunification under the communist banner with an invasion of the South. President Truman was committed to the policy of containing the spread of communism and he convinced the United Nations (UN) Security Council to allow a UN mission to take action and drive back the communists from the South. Zhou Enlai condemned it as an “imperialist invasion". The US State Department believed that Stalin and Mao orchestrated the communist invasion of South Korea. After the “loss" of China in 1949. the idea that communism was a monolithic force was very powerful. We now know that although Mao did support the invasion, he did not initiate it. In fact, Mao's priority at this time was to pull in the People's Liberation Army (PLA) units for the reunification campaigns in Tibet and beyond. He may have had an invasion of Taiwan in mind and wanted to test Stalin’s resolve as an ally. Mao was kept in the dark about Stalin’s motives. It is likely that Stalin wanted to provoke the USA. He was boycotting th...
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  • Spring '16
  • Robert Partin
  • History, Mao Zedong, People's Republic of China, Deng Xiaoping, Cultural Revolution, Chairman Mao

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