Chapter_5 - Chapter 5 4 types of macromolecules:...

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Chapter 5 4 types of macromolecules: carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids Polymers long molecules that consist of building blocks linked by covalent bonds (lipid is an exception to polymers) Monomers are repeating units that serve as building blocks Condensation/ Dehydration rxn monomers are connected by a reaction in which two molecules are covalently bonded to each other through lost of water molecule Hydrolysis bond between monomers are broken by addition of water Carbohydrates simplest is monosaccharide, ex: glucose. It contains carbonyl and hydroxyl groups and monosaccharide are good nutrients for cells Disaccharides’ – two mono joined by glycosidic linkage (a dehydration rxn, ex; fructose and lactose) Polysaccharides serve as storage material or as buldig materials for structures that protects cells, ex: starch( plants) and cellulose (cell wall) and glycogen (animals) Chitin a carbohydrate that is present in insects exoskeletons, not digested by humans. Lipids they have little or no affinity for water, example: Fats formed by glycerol and fatty acids Triaglycerol 3 fatty acids linked with glycerol Saturated fatty acid no double bonds between carbon atoms, leads to cardiovascular diseases, trans behaves like sat fat which is solid and is bad for us Unsaturated fatty acid has double bonds, cis unsaturated , do not solidify, good for health Phosolipids 2 fatty acids attached to glycerol and the 3 rd hydroxyl group is attached to phosphate The tails are hydrophobic and the heads are hydrophilic form bilayer together Phospholipids are the major components of cell membranes , amphitatic (both hydrophobic and hydrophilic) Steroids lipids with carbon skeleton of four fused rings ex: cholesterol : 2 types HDL (good) AND LDL (bad) Proteins subunits are amino acids and they can have carboxyl (C-terminus) groups, r groups and amino groups (n-terminus) , (see pg 79), R-groups decide if protein is non-polar or polar, polymers are known as polypeptides A peptide bond is 2 amino acids with carboxyl groups, adjacent together joined by dehydration Primary - unique sequence of amino acids, Secondary portions of proteins fold over each other , there is a helix and pleated sheet (types of folds), tertiary entire protein folds and interacts with the R groups quaternary 2 or more multi polypeptide chain forms one functional macromolecule
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Chapter_5 - Chapter 5 4 types of macromolecules:...

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