Chapter_12_Notes

# Chapter_12_Notes - Chapter 12 Reaction in Aqueous Solutions...

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Chapter 12: Reaction in Aqueous Solutions II: Calculations [12-1] Comparison of Solids, Liquids, and Gases Draw ice, water, and steam o Ice: Hannah Montana Concert Condensed High level of interaction o Water: Snakes!! Condensed Medium level of interaction o Steam: Space between us. . lalala Translational motion Collisions!! (elastic) Low level of interaction Densities o Gases<Liquids(<>)Solids Gases o Because gas molecules are so far apart, they would not interact with one another if it were not for their rapid motion and subsequently frequent collisions o Cooling and compressing a gas turns it into a liquid o Volatile liquids are easily converted back to gases art room temperature A vapor is a gas that is formed by the evaporation of a liquid (or the sublimation of a solid) [12-3] Pressure Pressure is force per unit area The SI unit of pressure is the Pascal (Pa) defined as the pressure exerted by the force of one Newton acting on an area of one square meter o 1Pa= (1N/m^2)=(1kg/m x s^2) Standard pressure is 101.3 kPa =760 mm Hg = 1 atm = 760 torr = ~15psi Barometer is a device used to measure atmospheric pressure o Pressure is measured in terms of the height of the column of mercury o The pressure exerted by the atmosphere is equal to the pressure by the column of mercury Atmospheric pressure(gas pressure) thus is frequently expressed in terms of millimeters of mercury mmHg Temperature o “measures the average kinetic energy of atoms or molecules in a substance” K.E = ½ mv^2 Particle velocity!

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Lord Kelvin measured the volume of gas versus temperature. Noticed that if he extrapolated the lines generated back to a volume of 0 L they all intersected at the same temperature = absolute zero Absolute zero occurs at: Zero on the Kelvin scale -273.15 on the Celsius scale o K=C + 273.15 STP : Standard Temperature and pressure o P= 1.0000atm or 101.3 kPa o T=273.15K or 0.00C [12-7] Combined Gas Law Gas Laws o Volume/Pressure(force/area)/Temperature o IDEAL gas: (Pressure x volume)/Temperature = Constant Initial= (P1v1/t1)=constant 1 Change= (p2v2/t2)=constant 1 Combined Gas Law (for an ideal gas) Soo… P1v1/t1= p2v2/t2 Or p1v1=p2v2 (with constant temperature) Or v1/t1=v2/t2 (with constant pressure) Or p1/t1/p2/t2 (with constant volume) o Ex: sample of N2 occupies (750 mL) at 75C under a pressuer of (810 torr). What volume would it occupy at STP? P1= 810 torr
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Chapter_12_Notes - Chapter 12 Reaction in Aqueous Solutions...

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