{[ promptMessage ]}

Bookmark it

{[ promptMessage ]}

Chapter_13_Notes

Chapter_13_Notes - Chapter 13 LIQUIDS[13-1...

Info icon This preview shows pages 1–3. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Chapter 13: LIQUIDS [13-1] Kinetic-Molecular Description of Liquids and Solids *Table 13-1* compares the properties of solids, liquids, and gases Both liquids AND gases are fluids… they flow easily Liquids DIFFUSE into other liquids with which they are miscible o Miscible liquids are soluble in one another Water dissolves in alcohol Gasoline dissolves in motor oil o Immiscible liquids are insoluble in one another Water does not dissolve in cyclohexane Water does not dissolve in oil Cooling a liquid causes its molecules to slow down If temperature is reduced enough, solidification occurs o Strong, short-range attractive interactions between molecules overcome the reduced kinetic energy of the molecules In comparing the degree of ordering of particles in solids, liquids and gases, we find: o Least ordered [gas<liquid<solid] most ordered What about two molecules attracting each other? There are 4 types of intermolecular forces o Ion-ion interactions: attract each other b/c of opposite charge o Hydrogen bonding: o Dipole-dipole interactions: similar to ion/ion o London dispersion forces: aka dispersion forces or London forces o Relative strength: London<dipole<h-bonding<ion-ion interactions o Intra stronger than any of the inter forces Ion-ion interactions: o Interactions between two oppositely charges ions(fully charged ions..ex: +1, +2 or -1 -3) o Governed by coulomb’s lay F is proportional to (q+)(q-)/(d^2) Q+ and q- are the ion charges, d is the distance b/t the ions Remember that we are no longer talking about a single NaCl molecule!! Ionic solids for crystal lattices! [13-2] intermolecular attraction and phase changes The value of F in Coulomb’s law tells us the energy of attraction between two oppositely charged ions o “gotta make em jiggle” o If the energy of attraction is large , then it is difficult to separate the ions This results in higher melting points and boiling points
Image of page 1

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
It also means that the substance is not very soluble in water o If the energy of attraction is small . Then it is easier to separate the ions The melting and boiling points are lower The substance is more soluble in water. o Higher the oxidation state of the cation the smaller it is Anions get bigger as you add electrons o Ex 13-1: arrange in increasing melting/boiling NaF<CaF2<CaO Dipole-dipole interactions: a dipole is created when two opposite charges are separated by dome distance, d (partially charged ions) o Dipole moment= IqI x d o Is a vector quantity o Two large charges close together=two small charges far apart o Remember that the electron pair(s) in heteronuclear covalent bonds are not equally shared o A dipole
Image of page 2
Image of page 3
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern